Water Resource Management

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Water treatment method, also known as the domestic wastewater treatment, is defined as the process of removing the contaminants, basically toxic organic and inorganic compounds, from freshwater. Moreover, water treatment involves physical, chemical, and biological processes in order to take away physical, chemical, and biological contaminants in water. With the increasing concern on the better supply of safe and clean water to use for various day-to-day activities in the society, domestic wastewater treatment provides an avenue towards the attainment of sustainable supply of safe and clear water for everyone.

Basically, there are four methods of treating wastewater namely: [1] the removal of large objects from influent sewage, [2] sedimentation, [3] secondary treatment, and [4] tertiary treatment. As for the scope of this paper, the last two stages of water treatment will be considered and will be put into comparison. Secondary Water Treatment Method Under this method, the biological content of the sewage, such as the one derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent, is degraded.

Oftentimes, this method requires the use of aerobic biological processes in order to treat wastewater from the industrial plants and municipalities. In other words, the secondary treatment requires the use of microorganisms in order to “treat” wastewater for future domestic use. In most cases, the use of trickling filter, under the fixed film treatment process, together with the rotating biological contactors are being used by various treatment facilities. The main objective in the use of secondary treatment would be to convert the nonsettleable solids to settleable ones through the use of microorganisms like bacteria and protozoa.

At the end of the day, the purity of water after the secondary treatment method can still be considered as “unsafe” since wastes are still in the water itself. Tertiary Water Treatment Method The tertiary water treatment method, also known as the final stage of water treatment process, encompasses the removal of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon through the process of adsorption (Wef. org, 2008). Moreover, tertiary water treatment method aims to raise the effluent quality of water before being released to its receiving environment such as river, sea, lake, etc.

At this stage, one can be sure that the water will be safe enough for it to be received by the environment. Compared to the end water of secondary treatment, the end water in the tertiary treatment method is relatively safer and cleaner, enough to sustain life and be used by households for domestic purposes. Appropriate Use of Reclaimed Water In most cases, reclaimed water exceeds the standard potable water especially to regions of the world where supply of fresh water is plenty. In order to encourage the use of reclaimed water to most citizens of many countries, its price relative to potable water is cheaper.

The use of reclaimed water for non-potable use would cause lesser consumption of potable water in the society, thereby resulting to saving more potable water for drinking. In other words, reclaimed water can be used as a substitute for potable water in the market and bring more households savings to many citizens. Moreover, reclaimed water can also be used for irrigation purposes since it contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen which are good for to fertilize plants. Recommended Wastewater Treatment Method

Considering the safety and purity of water produced in secondary and tertiary water treatment method, it is clear that tertiary water treatment method must e implemented over the secondary water treatment method. The mere fact that water produced under the tertiary method can be released to the environment already made it more beneficial to the society.


Wef. org (2008). Wastewater Treatment. Retrieved August 11, 2008, from http://www. wef. org/NR/rdonlyres/59E69C35-0E6F-4593-A4B8-D420AA9C4819/0/WastewaterTreatment912. pdf

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