DNA Replication (complete)

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replication, protein synthesisDNA used in two ways:
transcriptionDNA converted into RNA (part of protein synthesis)
translationRNA used to make protein (part of protein synthesis)

template, replicationDNA serves as a _______ to copy itself during DNA ________
cell cycletime of interphase and cell division
interphasenon-dividing stage of cell cycle (time between end of one cell division to beginning of next cell division)
G1, S, G2stages to interphase
G1First stage of interphase: cells produced by cell division grow and prepare for DNA replication
SSecond stage of interphase: DNA is replicated during this phase
G2Final, third stage of interphase: cells prepare to divide
binary fissiona form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes (bacteria and archaebacteria) and some organelles within eukaryotic organisms (e.g., mitochondria).
mitosis, cytokinesisThe two components of the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.
nucleotides (which form a double helix)DNA is composed of two chains of _______
deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen basethe 3 parts of all DNA nucleotides (3 terms, 2 words each)
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (distinguished by their nitrogen bases)the 4 DNA nucleotides
antiparallel (arranged in opposite directions, sugar to phosphate or phosphate to sugar)The two strands of a DNA run _________ to each other
hydrogen______ bonds hold complementary strands together
Chargaff______s rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine.
guaninecytosine pairs with _______
thymineadenine pairs with _________
cytosineguanine pairs with _______
adeninethymine pairs with _______
purines (double ring structures)Adenine and guanine are ________
pyrimidines (single ring structures)thymine and cytosine are _________
nucleusDNA made and functions within _______ of eukaryotic cells
nucleoid (region)DNA made and functions within the _______ of a prokaryotic cell
franklin, wilkinsTwo people (last names only) who measured/determined structure of DNA by x-ray crystallography
semiconservative____________ DNA replication produces two copies that each contain one of the original strands and one new strand.
DNA helicaseReplication enzyme that unwinds and separates strands of double helix
DNA polymerase (were making more DNA using an enzyme = 3 parts of the name!)Replication enzyme that controls multiple steps including
-finding origin of replication and starting sequence
– forms a replication bubble and moves replication forks along template strand
– adds nucleotides to new DNA strand
replication bubbleArea of DNA thats been opened up for replication
replication forkarea at each end of bubble
DNA ligaseReplication enzyme that connects new DNA pieces from lagging strand together into one strand
leading strandDNA that is oriented properly for enzyme to read
lagging strandDNA that is backwards for enzyme to read
okazaki fragmentsname of DNA pieces made on lagging strand
DNA, histone proteinsEukaryotic genetic material is composed of ______ and ______ ______
linearEukaryotic DNA is organized into separate ______ pieces
chromatininvisible, non-dividing forms of DNA
chromosomesvisible DNA, form during S phase of cell cycle. DNA twists around histones, becomes shorter and thicker
number, genes, producteukaryotic organisms are characterized by their ______ of chromosomes, all members of a species are the same;
they also have the same ______ in the same locations on chromosomes, and code for the same ______
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