Trends in International Business
The author argue that the first major steps in a firm’s internationalization process are generally held to be trade related, and while import activity is considered to play a role. She also state export activity that is most often recognized as being the first real step in the internationalization process. The globalization of business, and in particular, the globalization of technology markets, has meant that small firms in industry sectors subject to globalization forces may become involved in any number of different types of cross-border business activities.
A follow up research of this aspect will be continued, because in this article, the author gives a lot of evidence to support her standpoint, and some other authors (KANTER, 1998) also state the same point. 2. 9 HISRICH, P (1998) Entrepreneurship. 4th edition, USA: McGraw-Hill. In this book, the author point out several factors such as stage of economic development, balance of payments, type of system, political-legal environment, make decisions in international entrepreneurship. The author also comments the barriers and opportunities of market entry when an entrepreneur decides to be involved in the international business.
This book more concern about U. S. But in Europe countries, the situation is most different. Once the Europe countries joint together as a union, the tariff of import and export is no more the barriers. The author also gives a lot of evidence that are strongly support their standpoint, but when the future research developed, those view goes no use to apply in EU environment. 2. 10 JOHAN, A. (September, 2002) Environmental issue entrepreneurship: a Schumpeterian perspective. Futures, 34(7), pp. 649-441.
In this paper, the recent growth in national and international environmental legislation and the subsequent emergence of rather vague ecological concepts like sustainable development and the precautionary principle, are analyzed from an Schumpeterian perspective in which police issue entrepreneurship plays a central role. Schumpeter wrote that the emergence of unfavorable circumstances in capitalist societies would activate strong opposition from social critics and intellectuals. Environmental policy aims at correcting externalities or market failures and therefore impacts market forces.
The goal of environmental protection can change the course of capitalism. Author talk about relationship between national and international environment. He illustrates Schumpeter’s view and makes a critical analyze. The point based on the Schumpeter’s view that has been demonstrated. So this view can used in the future research to compare the difference effect of national and international environment. 2. 11 ELIZABETH, C. (2001). Entrepreneurship: Globalization, Innovation And Development. London: Thomson Learning.
As the author comment “they are global because their core activities of production, marketing and circulation are organized globally. ” In this book the focus has been on environmental factors that have fostered such developments. The author considered the key to the environment, however, are economic structures, in particular other firms. Nation-states are also important as repositories of business practices. Whilst the focus in this book has been on the more tangible aspects of the environment, it has been made clear that local, national and corporate culture are also important determinants of business behavior.
At the end of this book, it was given to what management needs to do to address both competitive and ‘global’ imperatives. The point of this book is very much relative to the future research proposal; those environment factors and global economy can give a lot of support point. 2. 12 HASRICH, MCDOUGALL AND OVIATT (1997) Cases In International Entrepreneurship. USA: Times Mirror. This book assists in understanding and addressing international opportunities and how international entrepreneurs respond to them.
The author states that international entrepreneurship focuses on how new and small ventures conduct business address national borders. This casebook brings alive both the opportunities and the problems with vitality, relevance, and richness of detail. The case demonstrate that entrepreneurs can find the resources to take virtually any type of business international, and several cases indicate the struggles of software ventures in various stages of international development, yet there are also several cases on service businesses.
This casebook illustrate different kinds of cases from different regions include China, UK, Poland, Ireland, US, Australia. It make possible to compare the different points with different countries. Conclusion This review paper examined the concept of international entrepreneurship in Europe that has been emerging across the USA, North Europe and Asian in recent years, providing an overview of the existing literature in this area.
Literature on the internationalization of the firm has been divided into studies that focus on the decisions involved, often relating to entry mode choice and strategy, and those that focus on the process. The first section told readers what would talk about in this research paper; the second section is a literature review depend on the journal and books. Many reading articles state that today in Europe, more individuals are emerging in both academic circles and large companies who are looking for a challenge and are finding it in entrepreneurship. New government policies are making it easier to raise money for starting up businesses.
All in all, by given the emerging global environment, entrepreneurs are no longer limited to domestic markets, and even locally oriented entrepreneurs must be attentive to competition from international players.
1. PAVLOS. D and SPYROS, L. (2003) The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and International Performance: the Importance of Domestic Environment. World Development, 29(4), pp. 641-656. 2. Wright, R. W. , ; Ricks, D. A. (1994). Trends in International Business Research: Twenty-five years later. International Business Studies, 25(4): pp. 687-701.