The Different Judo Techniques
Judo owes its origin from Jujitsu, an older style of martial arts. The techniques and the methodology of Jujitsu form the basis of Judo. Judo is now an Olympic sport.
Judo is a martial art where the participant grounds the opponent by “throwing” him or by suppressing him thereby locking him in a certain position or by trying to “choke” him and make him stay on the ground. There are various throwing techniques to do the same. Various strategies have been developed for throwing down the opponent for the beginners of this form of martial art. Self defense is also an important technique taught to the Judokas (the person who performs Judo).
Japanese technical names or Japanese technical terms are used while practicing or teaching Judo and also during competition. The Japanese term for “technique” is “Wazas”.
Some of the techniques or Wazas are as given below:
1. Nagewaza or the throwing technique – There are around 67 throwing wazas/techniques in Nagewaza. They are further subdivided into:
• Koshiwaza or the Hip technique – There are 11 types
• Tewaza or the Hand technique – There are 15 types
• Ashiwaza or the Foot and leg technique – has 21 foot techniques
• Sutemiwaza or the Sacrifice technique –
a. Rear Sacrifice Technique or the Ma-sutemi-waza- Masutemiwaza has 5 techniques
b. Side Sacrifice Technique or the Yoko-sutemi-waza – Yokosutemiwaza has 15 techniques
Tachi-waza or the Standing Technique – Koshiwaza, Tewaza and Ashiwaza fall under Tachiwaza or the standing technique
Sutemiwaza or the Sacrifice technique has two techniques under it called the Masutemiwaza and the Yokosutemiwaza.
2. Katemewaza or the Grappling technique – has around 29 techniques. The different types of Katemewaza are as mentioned below:
• Osaekomi waza or the Immobilization technique – There are around 7 Osaekomi Wazas
• Shime waza or the choking technique – Shime waza has around 12 techniques
• Kansetsu waza or the joint locking technique – This has 10 techniques
3. Atemiwaza or the striking technique – has around 22 striking technique
• Ashiate waza or the leg technique – The leg techniques are 6 in number
• Udeate waza or the arm technique – There are around 16 arm techniques
Atemiwaza or the striking techniques are sometimes allowed while playing games or during practices but they are not allowed during competition.
Traditionally, the throwing technique consisted of 40 throws divided into 5 sets. This was the standard rule followed from 1920 to 1982. In 1982 eight traditional techniques and 17 new techniques were added but it was not categorized under Gokyo no Waza, also called the five sets of techniques. These techniques came to be known as Shinmeisho no Waza. In 1997, the last two techniques were added to Shinmeisho no Waza.
• Set 1 or group 1 was the Dai-ikkyo
• Set 2 or group 2 was the Dai-nikyo
• Set 3 or group 3 was known as Dai-sankyo
• Set 4 or group 4 was known as Dai-yonkyo
• Set 5 or group 5 was known as Dai-gokyo