The contribution of psychological perspectives to the promotion of good practice
For this assignment, I will be describing the contribution of psychological perspectives to the promotion of good practice in residential care services and also evaluate the contribution of psychological perspectives in terms of informing and influencing the health and social care sectors. As individuals we all have significant roles and norms, which are expected from us. It can be sometimes associated with the social situation, occupation or role in life. However, we all have the different number of roles, which vary according to what we are doing at the time.
For example, as a student, I take the role of a student. This shows that we all absorb the rules, norms, and expectations of behaviors that accompany these several of roles without conscious learning. On the other hand, loss of role can lead to loss of identity, stress, and sense of helplessness and hopelessness. Conformity to social roles, For example, a manager in a residential care setting, has the role to guide his or her organization and employees to work effectively. He or she will have a very strong awareness of the sort of behavior expected of the role.
In 1973, Zimbardo et al carried out a study to observe how much roles influences behavior with prisons. The procedure of his study started by, interviewing a group of young male students who are psychologically and physically healthy to take part in a study. Accurately The experiment was carried out in a basement in the University of Stanford. It was converted into a prison, were student were randomly chosen to take on the role of either being a prisoner or a guard. In order, to encourage identification with the roles both guards and the prisoner were given uniforms.
However, the guards were given sunglasses, whiles the prisoners were only addressed by numbers. In short time of the experiment, the guards quickly adapted to their roles, they became quite brutal in their treatment of the prisoners. For example, they were humiliating them as a punishment for not abiding by the rules. Some of the response to these treatments was dramatic; as a result, a number became very distressed and reactive as a response to this aggression due to this the experiment had to be stopped within three days because the prisoners were suffering psychological harm. Read what is challenging behavior in health and social care
This show how to influence social roles on how we behave. Relating this to residential care services, each residential home has different views and culture. For example, staff member becomes in charge has soon has they change into their uniforms this makes them more conformed to their social role of the uniform. This is known as deindividuation. Overall this study showed that the guards and the prisoners become conformed to their roles, however not all residential care workers become conformed to their roles. For example, some care workers refuse to wear gloves in order to assist a service user.
This shows that not all the care workers become conformed to their roles and responsibility. On the other by following their policy and procedure as the guards and the prisoner did they might actually promote good practice. As this behavior carries on, whatever they do may have a little effect on what happens to them. They might not respond to what is expected from them as did the prisoners. This was known as learned helplessness. Zimbardo’s study was not only artificial but also demanding. The participants in this study took on specific role behavior because that is what they were asked to do, which was demanding.
However, in real life, a prison guard or prisoner might be less likely to act as the social roles dictates. Instead of demanding them, they would adapt the role to suit their personal beliefs and requirements of the situation. Also, some ethical issues were raised in his study because in some stage of the study it caused all participants emotional stressed. Conformity to minority influences As individuals we are always influenced by other around as.
For example, in a residential care setting a Linda might all of the surrounding start wearing gloves and apron, this kind of behavior will influence Jean who might react against it.
However, later on, jean might become conform to Linda’s behavior. This is because she might believe Linda behavior is acceptable or superior rather than her behavior. Another example will be, suppose two care workers go on a training course where they are shown evidence that encourages them that such rigid rules may actually increase insecurity and lead to people feeling helpless and lacking control. They may argue at a staff meeting in favor of adapting the rules and routines to include more freedom in specific areas. If the argument they put forward is well thought out.
They may well influence the minds of the majority who become converted to this new way of doing things. This was demonstrated in Asch’s experimentation. As similar as Moscovici experiment, he used assistant but this time there was only one true participant (who thought the other participants were also genuine). They were seated in a room were, they can clearly see the vertical line, which was known as the standard line. The participants were shown three comparison lines and they were asked, which one of the lines was the same length as the comparison line.
According to Asch’s findings 36. % of the responses made by the true participants were wrong. This shows that the true participants were conformed to the incorrect answer, which was given by the agreed assistant. However, 25% never gave a wrong answer. As a result, 75% conformed only once. The most important findings for Asch’s saw if there is any conformity. Overall this experiment has publicized that there is a surprisingly strong predisposition to conform to group pressures. For example in the residential care setting, a care worker might be in a rational mood that the other might conform to as they all work together.
Even though Ache’s experiment shows how individuals can be influenced by other, it does not mean asking people to judge the length of a line is rather an insignificant task and one where they would probably conform to save face. Attitude Change Sometimes we need to change our attitudes when we exposed to different opinions put forward by people who we are influenced by. Leon Festinger developed a theory which explicates attitudes change called Cognitive Dissonance. His theory mainly means that, when there is a measureless difference between our beliefs and thoughts, attitudes or behavior we feel uncomfortable.
In the BTEC National Diploma Book 2 it stated that we experience dissonance (a state of extreme discomfort when we become aware that we hold contradictory ideas). For example, a care worker might see herself as a kind and tolerant person but during her work shift she snapped at one of the elderly in an intolerant and unkind way, as result, she will experience dissonance. In order to free herself from this uncomfortable experience is to change one of her thoughts (cognitions). She might either change her views as being mostly kind and tolerant, this will change her attitude.
Another example might be that a resident might ask to walk by themselves but a care worker might think that it quicker to allow the resident to sit in the wheelchair rather than walk. Although the care worker might have these thoughts, according to the care value base, care workers need to respect the views or the beliefs of service users. So, therefore, service users should be allowed to walk by themselves, however, this is not practical in health and social care sectors due to their lack of time and staff to ensure this implemented. These are some of the reasons why the care value base was implemented.
It was set to help care workers promote the rights of clients. It underpins everything that is done in health and social care. Social Identity Prejudice is one of the human behavior that occurs within us. Is an attitude towards the member of some group on their membership in that group. There many psychological theories which try to explain the origins of prejudice, which falls into two major categories. Personality theories see the source of prejudice as being in the individual and social psychological theories see it as a result of group membership.
An example of a personality theory would be Bandurs’s social learning theory, which argues that attitudes such prejudices are learned from role models. In 1971, Tajfel argued that competition is not an important condition for inter-group conflict and unfriendliness. However, he does not deny the importance of competition between groups, personality types as explanation for the origins of prejudice but argues that simple observation of the existence of another group can itself produce discrimination.
Tajfel et al argue that before any discrimination can occur people must be categorized as members of an in-group or an out-group but more significantly the very act of categorization by itself produces conflicts and discrimination between groups. The aim of his study was to demonstrate the simply putting people into groups is sufficient for people to discriminate in favor of their own group and against members of the other group.
According to his findings the boys favoured their own groups because it increases their self-esteem, even though the boys were never giving points to themselves they knew that if they gave less to the other group and to their own group that they would be in the group which gained most points, therefore, improving their self-esteem because they belonged to the best group. For example if this incident happened in a residential home it can be sorted by joining all the groups together, in order to reduce the discrimination.
Another alternative is to provide them with an activity that will bond them together for them to become an in-group, i. e. bingo nights. Although is theory is relevant, it was criticised because it is very articfical (not cost-effectively valid) and also it contains demand characteristics. His experiment aimed to show that competition was not a sufficient factor in the creation of intergroup discrimination. However, it has been suggested that if school boys are divided into groups, by adults, they will naturally interpret these groups as team and thin in terms of competition.
The major strength of the procedure was the high level of control, as he managed to employ. For example, there was no face to face interaction between group members; the boys only knew of other in-group or out-group members by a code number, although the boys did not realize this, they were, in fact, allocate randomly to the two groups. They could award points to other either in-groupers or out-groupers and never to themselves. Most importantly they could not know what others would do or in any way influenced how other behaved.
Overall I think Tajfel theory is very useful because as well as explaining the social causes of prejudice it may also be able to explain individual differences. For example why some people is more likely to discriminate than others. Some individuals may be more prone to prejudice because they have an intense need for acceptance by others. For such individuals, personal and social identity may be much more interlinked than for those with a lesser need for social acceptance. This need for a sense of security and superiority can be met by belonging to a favoured in-group and showing opposition towards out-groups. Nowadays psychology as had a profound influence upon health and social care sectors, child care policies, as well as principles off basic clinical practice for children.
For example parents are now allowed to stay with their children in hospitals to protection or to make sure that attachment is secured. During the 17th and the 18th centuries there were no children hospitals available in the UK, children were used to sharing wards with older people but now children and adults have separate hospitals.
Mrs Wood is 70 years old. She lives in a residential home. Recently she has had a medical operation.
As a result from the operation she has been suffering from depression and needs to have a physiological treatment in order to assist her to overcome the depression. I will also recommend the cognitive therapy to counsellors or GPs because mostly counsellor can aim to help Mrs Wood to become aware of her thought distortions which are causing psychological distress and behavioural patterns which are reinforcing it and to correct them. The cognitive behavioural therapy helps the depressed client to recognise which life problems are important and which are not so important.
This will enable the client to develop positive goals and more positive self-assessment. This is an advantage because many people do not know the past causes of their abnormal behaviour. Many people getting rid of undesirable behaviour may be more important than understanding the causes of such behaviour. For example a client with an unreasonable desire to wash his or her hands unnecessarily many times may be satisfied by simply ridding his or herself of the abnormal behavior. On the other hand, if an approach cannot treat the causes of the behaviour, it is likely the behaviour will return after a period of time.
They are specialist people who can treat patients by applying cognitive behavioural therapy in order to manage specific behaviour. However, this was not available during the late centuries as research was insufficient but now things has dramatically change as we are more advanced. This shows how psychological perspectives has not only informed health and social care sectors but has also influence how we understand the whole of human behaviours. Attachment theory has not only influence the health care setting but also social care services.
For example, social care services do not forcefully take children in to care like they use to do years before. This has changed dramatically in the fields of social care services due to the secure attachment some children have with their parents. Now in order to help and support children, social care professional investigates the matters much more in-depth before they can take any actions. For example they provide the parents and the child a counseling programme and order to sort their problems out, however a child only becomes looked after if the subject matter is very severe or the child is in abusive environment.
The humanistic approach has become very useful for health care professionals because it has encouraged psychologist to accept the views that there are more to behaviour that objectively discoverable facts. This promotes a positive approach to human behaviour and one that emphasises individual responsibility. For example, psychologist has understood specific behaviours such mental illnesses and know how to manage such behaviours rather using medications. The problem with mediation is that it only reduces the symptoms of behaviour rather than fully treating the causes of the behaviour, as a result it is likely for the behaviour to reoccur.
As a role of a manager in residential care setting is their responsibility to guide their organisation and health care professionals to work effectively. In order for this commences, managers needs to organise a training programme that will enable staff members to operate and support service users. The humanistic approach has also had a great impact on the sort of care provided for older people. For example listening and support service users by not judging their basic needs. The overall, outcome of this has help service users to develop more positive sense of self.
For example without making a judgment about whether they are positive or negative. This provides them with the opportunity to explore inspiration, personal growth and self development. It encourages self awareness and self realisation. Concluding this, the aspects of psychological perspective has had a great impact on how we function these days. It has not only educated as in the fields of specific behaviours but also made has understood how we behaviour has individuals. Health and social care professionals are more advanced and skilful when it becomes to challenging behaviours and the aspects of attachment.