Sex Discrimination Among Women-Why Does it Continue to exist
Globally for the past two or so decades, women rights have been recognized as human rights. This embrace was aimed at reviewing the perception that has been in the minds of many that human rights are males’ rights. As a result various human rights feminist’s bodies and movements have grown in efforts to end the biasness that their male counterparts have for years been having in order to full y realize that the rights for women are no lesser than other human rights (Okin, 1998, 32).
Despite the recognition by the Convention on the Elimination of All Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) that Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) has affirmed the inadmissibility of discrimination that is sex-based; women are still facing accelerated discrimination. Violence against women, both in private and public avenues, brings in the open the highest degree of oppression towards women.
This does not only violate the rights of the woman to her bodily integrity but also to her bodily integrity to be out of the chains of inhumanity, torture and degradation of treatment (O’Hare, 1999, p. 370). Being a global move, Australia has signed in CEDAW so as to be one among the societies that advocate for laws, policies, structures, policies, attitudes and establishment of organizations that are all aimed at offering equal rights to women as valuable members of the society. However, various reasons have led to this continued discrimination.
In Australia, the bases of this unethical vice include the unrelenting under-representation of the females in leadership roles and in matters regarding decision making, inadequate awareness about harassments towards women’ especially sexual harassments and the many kinds of discriminations to women that go unreported to both employers and other bodies concerned with the welfare of women (Kelly, Dobin, 1999, p. 461). In elaborating the degree to which most Australian female nationals have suffered discrimination, many do not have the necessary primary education on this issue.
More especially, they are sexuality harassed after entangling in mere unwelcoming touches, cornering and even other forms of physical conducts that are inappropriate. Since they have been under-represented in various areas including workplaces, discrimination in these facets of their lives go unreported to the stakeholders, i. e. their employers or other bodies that would have otherwise come to their rescue. In addition, despite the fact that women make up the largest percentage in Australia, only a small proportion of them, factually only twenty nine percent have had a chance to be appointed in the state’s parliament.
Those offered jobs in various institutions are employed as casual laborers concentrating in the lowest ranks within the organizations. Neo-liberalism has also significantly contributed to the regression in alleviating sex-based discrimination. The policies incorporated basically provide lower wages to the females whose work in many organizations is undervalued. Women are considered to be only useful in giving birth and that their involvement in any career, and more specifically leadership and business arenas, is of no consequence whatsoever. Those engaged in the so-believed males’ trending grounds are detested.
Moreover, presence of loopholes in the Sex Discrimination Act has heightened the sex-based discrimination levels. In the Australian Sex Discrimination Act, the definition that has been provided for the term discrimination is comparatively weaker than that in other developed oversea countries. Besides, the enforcement of this Act is solely depended on litigation by the discrimination victims, who are the women (Ricatti, 2008, p. 11). Due to this loosened definition, law enforcement upon those practicing discrimination towards the females through various practices such as sexual harassment in work places has had limitations.
For instance, the pressure towards workplace and social practices to avoid discrimination has over years been limited. In achieving the aforementioned beneficial objectives, CEDAW has been engaged in Australia through the promotion of practices that are non-discriminatory. These include the enactment of policies, laws and prejudices that have been tightened to protect the women, carrying out various trainings and educating activities to empower the Australian females, involvement of the society at large in preventing and reporting arising cases of sex discrimination.
In expounding on the law, prejudices and policy effort of the CEDAW in fostering the elimination of sex-based discrimination, it has put down various articles that propagate this (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2010). With the earlier laws that oppressed the women, Article 2 of this body recommends the Australian leadership to introduce laws and policies that will see to it that women are considered as vital society member, entitled enjoy their rights to the fullest.
Moreover, the government ought to have incorporated sanctions for those found not conforming to the newly instituted laws and policies. In the public and politics arena, CEWAD has pushed for women to be granted the right to vote, to contend for various leadership posts and also be actively involved in the formulation of government policies and also be full-of-zip contributors in the country’s political parties, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other lobby groups.
Apart from this internal representation, Article 8 of CEDAW reckons that women should also be offered equal rights as their male counterparts to represent Australia in international issues and pivotal players in the works undertaken by various international organizations operating within the political boundaries of Australia. CEDAW has required the rights of women to work to be protected. Moreover, the females are entitled to receive equal pay for equal work and value. Dangers and injuries are inevitable in the workplace.
Consequently, allowances, schemes of worker compensation and allowances in relation to work incapacity and retirement. This fair consideration will assure better and equal education and training opportunities to the women in the Australian societies. Owing to the undoubted fact that many women were illiterate on the various divergent forms of discrimination, CEDAW has urged these countries, and also other interested groups to see to it that women have similar educational and training opportunities as men.
This opportunity should not only be provided at the lower levels of academics such as primary education institutions, but also in the tertiary and higher education institutions. In these institutions, same professional staff, curricula and programs purposed to lessen the existent gaps on gender bases in the areas of education ought to be availed without discrimination (Watson, 1998, p. 17). Moreover, in cases were educational scholarships are provided; the equality concept should take its course.
In facilitating and assuring that the reporting of sex discrimination, all employers, ranging from those heading small organizations to those endowed with multinational organization’s management, procedures to deal with complaints in sex discrimination and sex harassments have to be instituted as per the CEDAW’s prescription. The organizations’ managements ought to consistently adhere to the employers’ code of practice.
Besides, the out-of-date organizational cultures that segregate women have to be put aside. This fosters the enforcement of the right of individual complaint. Therefore, we can conclusively rule out that violence against women ought to be condemned by branding violence that is gender-based to be Jus cogens and delineating violent acts that are private as torture. Besides, different stakeholders ought to embrace women empowerment.