Our work aims to make clear relations between security management and security planning. It gives definition of security management, organization asset, risk factors. It also provides recommendations about security arrangements and data protection in organizations. Security management is important kind of activities. It binds together to asset management and physical security. Human resource safety functions also belong to its competence. Security managers protect telecommunications systems from unauthorized access.
They control and create security services and mechanisms. Management tools such as information classification, risk analysis are used to identify threats, classify assets (Dalton, 1995). So security managers protect organizations from risk factors. What is risk itself? Risk, ambiguity, and uncertainty often muddy the ordering of preferences when the causal sequence of events cannot be clearly specified and particularly when the causal path from cause to (adverse) consequence cannot be defined with certainty.
In such situations, individuals tend to depend on their social environment (group, organization) as a source of information to validate their beliefs (Kobrin, 1982: 134). Security management is tied down with the risk management. Risk management primarily seeks to identify the possibility of and prevent catastrophic accidents that do not afford adequate warning time for evasive action. If warning time adequate for evasive action is not available, signposts are not particularly helpful.
If an assumption could fail without adequate warning time, action must be taken either to prevent the assumption’s failing (shaping actions) or to be prepared to clean up afterward (hedging and contingency actions) (Dewar, 2002: 104). Ensuring security in organizations depends on designing out or minimizing the potential for crime and disruptive activity. The security of staff and resources is a crucially important consideration that demands close attention, yet has received, and generally continues to receive, little systematic treatment from security managers worldwide.
Security measures have been enforced erratically and neglected in varying degrees.. The trend towards crimes in organizations is rising and it is no longer wise to conclude that libraries can be exempted from these global considerations. Information managers have to come to terms with the uncomfortable reality that security is a paramount consideration that cannot be ignored if resources are to be protected. The key to success has been the raising of security consciousness through the creation of a security plan or policy within the context of the strategic planning process.
In this way, security consciousness becomes integral to, rather than being grafted on to, an existing framework. The most successful adoption and implementation of security plans seem to have been where staff have been closely involved in the audit and proposal mechanisms. Each organization will place its own unique emphasis on the level and nature of security to be adopted and these will be related to local circumstances. The subject of security is typically considered under the headings of staff, materials (including equipment) and buildings. Security of staff includes the issues of verbal abuse and threats, violence and assault.
An increasing number of organizations are taking these issues into account in their security planning procedures. Various organizations perceive, and some have identified through a security audit, that there is a need to establish training programmes which help staff to handle conflict situations, even to the extent of giving advice on self-defence (Zwicky 2000). Others, however, prefer to keep the matter low-key, on the basis that giving the subject undue attention might instil more fear, when in practice the likelihood of assault is remote in many companies. Read the answer on what is not a physical security measure for your home?
Nonetheless, general courses on customer care increasingly introduce the subject and are useful channels for a discussion of the problem. However, the need for more tangible assistance in the form of back-up facilities is being acknowledged and introduced into offices, including the installation of additional telephone lines and panic button alarms at the counter, regular patrols inside and outside the building, and employment of attendants at entry points. All these methods give a degree of reassurance.
There is also evidence to suggest (Bies, 1997) that the community rather than an individual library approach to the problem of abuse, assault and violence can be of positive assistance. This process would normally involve discussion between customers, office staff and local community people (for example, social workers, community workers and police) to evolve an agreed course of action. The second general heading associated with security is that of materials. It is one that has been of concern from the early days of manuscripts, when volumes were chained to the library shelf.
Numerous articles in the professional literature attest to the fact that theft and mutilation continue to be a major problem. It has become necessary to install detection devices to protect material. These devices are no more than deterrents and mainly remind the forgetful; they catch the careless user, rather than the determined thief. Indeed, the view has been advanced that these devices only encourage the most determined thief to attempt to beat the system by removing pages of text that are less likely to have security tags. This adds to the increase in mutilated material left in the organization.
The most calculating criminal intent on building collections or obtaining rare items for personal gain is much harder to deter unless very systematic, stringent and restrictive security policies are put into place (Rosenbaum 1993). The deployment of closed-circuit television (CCTV) is being used on a more regular basis in libraries, especially where it is demonstrated to be cost-effective. The acquisition of increasing amounts of expensive technology, such as cd-rom equipment and workstations, begins to make CCTV more attractive, although physically securing equipment to work surfaces is often used as a simple form of deterrent.
In recent times there has also been the added complication of ensuring the security of information stored in electronic form. Computer security is a subject that will be of ever increasing concern as more and more data are stored both in-house and remotely but need to be accessible to the library clientele. This calls into question the ability to protect files of electronic information from unauthorized use, whether it be in the form of obtaining confidential information, altering existing files or implanting viruses into software.
In many countries there is also an additional legal responsibility to ensure confidentiality of computer-stored information about an individual’s personal details under data protection acts. The need for security stuff and plans about such matters cannot be overemphasized; it is not just a matter of cost-effective protection but of possible prosecution. The third major heading associated with security is that of the building, in terms both of the protection of users from assault or threat and of the protection of the materials and equipment.
Attention is now being given to designing out, or at least minimizing, criminal acts (Davis and Smith, 1995). One inherent problem is that the larger the building, the greater the problem of attempting to minimize or design out crime. Certain principles need to be considered, such as the need to have good sightlines from staff vantage points and, by implication, to reduce hidden corners and, where feasible, to integrate office and other administrative areas into public areas so as to encourage random surveillance by staff.
It is often suggested that a high level of staff presence in the office, where finance permits, will reduce the level of crime. Many organizations have employed attendants at the front desk or have deployed card access machines to enable entrance to the buildings. Better lighting levels both inside and outside are also being deployed. Toilets, also, have been singled out as a possible security threat and are now being sited outside the entrance rather than inside it.
The need for concerted action to ensure that the resources continue to be kept available for users is one of the biggest challenges to information managers. The requirement for availability and accessibility, the feasibility of applying legal sanction, and economics have to be balanced and assessed. More control could lead to a fortress mentality and to an attendant reduction in use This notwithstanding, the security manager cannot afford the luxury of ignorance; a coherent security strategy and plan is a sine qua non for protecting resources for continued use in the twenty-first century.