Royal Pharmaceutical Society
P3 and M1: Explain relevant sections of legislation and guidance with regard to the administration of medicines. Please ensure that you have covered at least 5 pieces of legislation and guidance including the guides from Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain also Explain what the effect of legislation and guidelines with regard to medication on organisational policies and procedures at Health and Social Care settings. Medicines Act 1968 Under the Medicine Act of 1968 they are three main categories that need to be abided by. These are prescription, supply and the storage and administration of medicines.
The first area is related to prescription only medication such as antibiotics and antidepressants. Medication such as these can only be obtained from a qualified medical professional such as doctors dentists or specialised trained nurses. The reason for this is to help monitor and control the intake of these medications as some of these can be easily abused, if taken with other medication they could be dangerous. This act is intended to prevent harm, abuse and ill health and makes it necessary that a qualified persons gives advice and guidance as well as reviewing the medication.
The second part of this legislation is pharmacy only medication (P), these are medications that are not kept on the shelves of shops or supermarkets. The public are required to discuss the medication over the counter with a pharmacist, for example hydrocortisone creams or ointments, possible ear or eye drops. This is to help the public receive advice and guidance on how to administer the medication, precautions they should take and what to do if there are adverse reactions. The third part is general sales list medication (GSL) where u can buy medication without supervision or advice.
These are readily available in shops and supermarkets and include medicines such as Paracetamol and Aspirin. Misuse of drugs Act 1998 Was implemented to protect the public from harmful medicines, the term for these is controlled drugs. These are the drugs that you cannot buy from your local pharmacy, only via prescription. These drugs are monitored, collected and administered by two health professionals. For example in a care home cancer patients are given morphine (a very strong painkiller which is a controlled drug) for the pain.
Two qualified staff will be required to collect the medication and both must sign to show that they have taken these drugs, it will also take one of them to administer the medication and the other to witness this and sign to show that the have given the medication. Also, under the Misuse of Drugs Act (safe custody) 1973 controlled medication must be stored in the right way. Which is to be kept separate, locked in a wall safe with the key separately accessible from another safe only authorised by permitted trained staff.
The health act 2000 This Act stands to protect service users from abuse and maltreatment. This Act was implemented after a health professional Dr. Shipman was using controlled drugs to kill his elderly patients. This Act will ensure that work within health or social establishments like hospitals and cares have to live up to standards while administering medication. These establishments live up to these high standards by following all protocols necessary for the safety of patients when administering medication.
This Act ensures that all establishments live up to the right standards when administering medication. It does so by giving the police and other nominated parties the authority to enter health or social care settings and assessing their methods of administering medication (inspections). Without this Act in place the standards for health or social professionals to live up to while administering medication would be really low as they wouldn’t be any consequences for professions who mess up and endanger the lives of patients when administering medication.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 COSHH regulations are inexistence to ensure that health and social care establishments protect both their employees and service users from hazardous substances. In relation to administration of medication this could be controlled medication, used gloves, unsterilized material etc. All establishments are required to deal with hazardous such as the above mentioned accord to standards set by these regulations.
So without this act in place the health of patients and employees in health and social care establishments would be at risk as there wouldn’t be any type of guidance on how deal with hazardous substances. Also to ensure the safety of medication by keeping it locked at all times. Data protection Act 1998 In health and social care establishments usually take personal information from patients, the data protection act ensures that this information is kept secure and used for the right reasons.
With this act in place patients present more trust in health and social professionals. This in turn improves the relationship between service users and service providers. Without this act in place patients would find it hard to trust service users because they would be less to feel obligated to keep their information secure or use it for the right reasons. P4 and M2: Explain the roles and responsibilities with regard to the administration of medicines in a health or social care setting.
This must be supported with the role of least two different members of staff in the Health and Social Care setting Compare the roles and responsibilities and level of accountability assigned to the individuals involved in the administration of medication. Prescriber: A prescriber is a person who is qualified prescribe medication for individuals, these are usually doctors, dentist or specialist nurses. These care professionals will list instructions about how and when the medication should be administered and it is the Carers job to administer the medication correctly.
The Medicines Act 1968, states that the medicines should only be administered to the person who it was prescribed to, it should be labelled and supplied to the person that the medication was prescribed for and it cannot be shared even if two people suffer from the same disease. The role of the health or care worker: the role of the health and social care professionals is to check that medication has been received, is current and is stored properly. They also need to ensure that patients are receiving their medication.
Health care workers will need to check that medication being prescribed is right for the patient, in order to do this they will need contact the GP and confirm that the medication is correct. New individual’s medication will be check by either prescription from the hospital, or a repeat prescription, the individual will also be re assessed to make sure that their medication is still right from them. They must also ensure the administer it correctly, as they have been trained, maintaining Health and Safety and Infection Control.
Pharmacist: Pharmacists play an important role in the supply and disposal of medication to care providers; they also give them advice on ways of storing the medication and monitoring the stocks. Furthermore, they also have the inspection roles in the community. Designated officer in care homes: A designated member of staff is given responsibility for medicines management. This includes ensuring there is a regular supply of all medicines for the resident.
Many of these are renewable as repeat prescriptions, but some medication may have to be obtained from the local pharmacist when required. An example of this would be if a resident is prescribed a course of antibiotics for an infection. There are a few things that only certain care professional can and cannot do. For Example a pharmacist cannot administer medication because they have not been trained to do so. Only doctors, nurses, and certain carers are a le to do so. This is because it’s a responsible that goes their role.
However a designated officer is to take responsibility of the medication and storage, health and social care staff are also responsible for monitoring medication and keeping prescriptions up to date. The differences is the designated office has to ensure that the medication is the same as it has been prescribed. The same as writing a prescription only the prescriber (GP) can diagnose the medicine as it is part of their job roles however; the pharmacist, designated officer and care can’t as it is not part of their job role.
Although, when it comes to responsibility of administrating the medication all pharmacists, prescriber, designated officer and carer (if they are trained) can do it but, when it is ordering medications all but, the carer can do it as it is not part of their job description however, it covers the others. Completing repeat prescription can be carried out by prescriber however; the designated officer can’t complete it but can ask for it. On the other hand, when it comes to giving the individual medication to make them feel better can be done by the prescriber, designated officer and carer as it is part of their job roles.
P5 & M3: Explain safe practice in the administration and storage of medicines and that your answers cover health, wellbeing and safety of the individual as well as aspects such as consent and the importance of effective communication All medication needs to be stored in a clean, lockable, secure facility so that they cannot be mixed up with other people’s medicines and cannot be stolen. Staff must ensure medication is stored in a designated place, at an appropriate temperature e. g. room temperature or in a fridge if necessary protected from light.
Controlled drugs must be stored in cupboards that comply with the Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations 1972 as amended. Controlled Drugs cabinets should be reserved for controlled drugs only, holding nothing else. Administration of medicines All organisations should have in place their own local policies and procedures for the safe administration of medication for that particular care setting. ‘Safe administration’ is defined as medicines given in such a way as to avoid causing harm to the person taking the medicine.
Apart from homely remedies, a prescription must always be obtained from a registered medical/dental practitioner or a nurse prescriber, for any medicine administered to another person. Medicines must never be removed from their original containers or bottles in which they were dispensed by the pharmacist. Staff must always follow set procedures within their care settings and adhere to the main principals of safe administration: identify the medication correctly, identify the person correctly, know what the medicine is intended to do and know whether any special precautions are needed
Self-administration on medicines Self-medication is the term used to describe the service user storing and administering Medicines for their own use. All individuals should be encouraged to self-administer their own medicines, however, when there a patient is unable health provider should administer the medication. They must ensure: * that the service user is able to administer their medication without supervision. * Ensure that all medicine is taken as prescribed by the service user’s GP. * Minimise the risk to the service user or to others.