Physical/Psychological Changes to Hearing

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During the aging process, there are physical changes that take place. A big change to people over 60 that can affect them physically could be hearing impairment, but about 33% of those 75 to 84, and about half of those over 85, have a hearing loss. Elderly people find it hard to hear high pitch noises, when people are speaking in a place with background noise they can also find this hard to understand. Hearing lost can effect people physically in the mind, because the person who has a hearing problem can become frustrated and embarrassed that they are un able to hear, mainly because they have been able to here well and now they cant.

It can cause people to hold back on taking part in a conversation because they might feel they can’t understand someone, and may come out with the wrong answer. When people are speaking to them, and the person who can’t hear so well is listening they might not hear and keep asking to get them to repeat what they said.

As a result to this problem this can cause them to loose friends and family because there frightened to socialise in case they cant hear. For people over 60 being older is bad enough for them which can cause them to lack confidence. Starting to loose your hearing is even worse, this can cause someone to become quit, embossed and feel vulnerable when being in groups. The reason for this being because you feel as though people are laughing at you because you might have to ask people to keep repeating what they have said. This can lower there confidence a lot and can make people feel as though they don’t want to go out place, either alone or as a group.

To improve this problem so that people are able to socialise and feel more confident in them selves, there can be simple changes in behaviour and the home environment. This means that is can increase the elderly person’s ability to carry on a normal conversation.

These are a few examples in which you can help people;

* Speak clearly and in a normal tone of voice

* Speak slower but not too slow

* Get there attention before speaking

* Break in between the conversation

* Repeat yourself using different word if necessary

* Ask how you can help

* Include the person with a hearing difficulty in a group conversation and don’t exclude them

* Look directly at them

Puberty

What Is Puberty?

Puberty is the period of time when children begin to mature biologically, psychologically, socially and cognitively. This process can take a year or up to six years. Both males and females bodies will change and take on a different shape. All people mature at different times but eventually we eventually we all catch up. Puberty leads on to adolescence.

Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood. The changes of adolescence do not occur on a strict timeline; instead the changes occur at different times according to a unique internal calendar known only to the person. Adolescence can be a very difficult time. You are no longer a child, but you are not an adult yet either.

What Causes All These Changes?

Hormones are what cause these changes, the body realises chemicals called hormones, and Different hormones are responsible for different changes in you. These hormones stimulate the ovaries of girls to produce other hormones called estrogens and progesterone, and the testes of boys to produce testosterone. Growth hormones are also stimulated; this is where your body grows larger. Some people might grow up to about 4 inches just in one year. Boy’s shoulders will widen, and their bodies will become more muscular. At the same time their voices will become deeper, their genitals will enlarge. Girls usually become curvier during this time, they tend to gain weight on their hips, and their breasts develop.

Menopause

What is the menopause?

The menopause is also known as the change in life, it can happen between the ages of 30-60 years, it’s classed as the last menstrual period. The menopause occurs when the ovaries no longer respond to the controlling hormones released by the pituitary gland of the brain. The ovaries then fail to realise an egg every month and to produce the female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone. One hundred years ago, when life expectancy was shorter, most women did not live long after the menopause and so little was known about it.

What is the menopause like?

Everyone will experience the menopause differently, some people don’t even notice that there’s a change. A way in knowing this could be that you periods become irregular.

Physical Changes

* During the menopause your skin becomes thinner.

* A lack of oestrogen often means the glands in the vagina don’t produce as much lubrication as before and this may cause stinging around the vagina during sex.

* Some women don’t feel like having sex, whereas others find their orgasms become less intense.

* The lack of oestrogen also affects the bladder and you may find you need to pass water more often.

* There is a gradual rise in the risk of heart disease and stroke after the menopause.

* Falling oestrogen levels result in unfavourable changes in cholesterol and fat levels in the blood, causing a predisposition to these problems.

Coronary heart disease

What Is it?

Coronary heart disease is the UK’s biggest killer, with one in every four men, and one in every six women dying from the disease. In the UK, approximately 300,000 people have a heart attack each year.

Symptoms

If your coronary arteries become partially blocked, it can cause chest pain which is commonly known as angina. If they become completely blocked, it can cause a heart attack. Heart attacks can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle and, if not treated straight away it can be terrible and often cause death and therefore you should be treated there and then.

If you have coronary heart disease, you may whiteness palpitations this occurs when your heart beats irregularly, or faster than normal. It is important to realise that heart palpitations are not necessarily linked to coronary heart disease, its best to be checked out by your GP.

Heart failure can occur in people with coronary heart disease. The heart becomes too weak to pump blood around the body which can cause fluid to build up in the lungs, making it increasingly difficult to breath.

Causes

* smoke,

* have high blood pressure,

* have a high blood cholesterol level,

* do not take regular exercise,

* have a thrombosis, and

* Having diabetes.

* being obese or overweight, and

* Having a family history of heart attack or angina.

For men, the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis is increased if you have a close family member who has had a heart attack, or angina, before the age of 55. For women, the risk is increased if you have a close family member who has had a heart attack, or angina, before the age of 65.

Having a high blood pressure puts a strain on your heart and can lead to coronary heart disease.

Blood pressure is measured at two points during the blood circulation cycle. The systolic pressure is a measure of your blood pressure as the heart contracts and pumps blood out. The diastolic pressure is a measure of your blood pressure when your heart is relaxed and filling up with blood.

Motor Neurone Disease

What Is It?

Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is the name given to a group of relatively rare disorders that cause the motor system to progressively degenerate (break down). The motor neurones are a complex system of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control the action of the muscles.

Symptons

* Weakness

* Wasting of muscles usually occurs initially in the arms or legs with some muscles being affected more than others.

* twitching of the weakened muscles

* tiredness,

* Jerking of the arm of leg when resting.

Some people may develop weakness and wasting in the muscles supplying the face and throat, causing problems with speech and difficulty chewing and swallowing.

As symptoms get worse in later stages of the condition, a person may become totally immobile and not be able to do anything physical this can become distressing for the person.

Causes

The cause of motor neurone disease is unknown and research is continuing. It is thought that certain chemicals that are only found in motor neurones are damaged in some way. It may be possible that working regularly with leathers, heavy metals, solvents and pesticides can increase your risk of developing Motor neuron disease.

There is also some evidence that Motor neuron disease can run in families. Around 5-10% of people who have Motor neurone disease have had a family member that has had it, so most people who have this family history should be checked out by a GP before it can get any worse.

Essay

Muscle weakness

When people being to get older there are many different changes to there body, I’m going to talk about two different types of changes, my first is one I’m going to speak about it muscle weakness. This occurs a lot in elderly people and can cause them to become slower. This is caused by the fact that muscles need to be exercised regularly but when people become older they stop working and end up retiring and then they spend a lot of time inside the house, they might spend a lot of time sat down which means the muscles tighten and become weak. Straining can occur and can cause pain for the person. They should take one step at a time and not make to much pain for themselves. To make the muscles stronger nutritional goods are a definite must. Protein isn’t the main amount, but you should have an amount of this, carbohydrates are good because it consist of a lot of energy. Almost every nutrient is involved to repair.

In health and social care provision this has been researched and there are now different types of ways in helping people to get out more and to do more exercising. Therefore the amount of people with muscle weakness is decreasing.

Bone Weakness

The skeleton provides support and structure to the body. Joints are the areas where bones come together. They allow the skeleton to be flexible for movement. In a joint, bones do not directly contact each other. Instead, they are cushioned by cartilage, membranes, and fluid, As people get older there are changes to these bones and it makes them weaker.

The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae. Between each bone is a gel-like cushion. The trunk becomes shorter as the disks gradually lose fluid and become thinner.

The joints become stiffer and less flexible. Fluid in the joints may decrease, and the cartilage may begin to rub together and erode. Minerals may deposit in some joints). This is common in the shoulder.

In health and social care provision, people are now told to have different types of calcium filled drink and there are more different drink invented to be more popular. Also the doctor can prescribe you to have tablets to make you have more strength.

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