Neuro – Block4 – Cerebral Cortical Function

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Association cortex of the Neocortex are the anatomical areas where what occurs
Cognition “Knowing”
The prefrontal association cortex is the location of specific neurons involved in planning of behavior and setting goalsDelay-specific neurons
Mirror neurons (fire when mirroring actions observed)
The parietal lobe assocition cortex is the location of neurons that attend to complex stimuliAttention specific neurons (give attention to a stimulus)

The temporal lobe association cortex is the location of neurons that take part in recognizing and identifying objectsRecognition specific neurons (identify a stimulus)
The processing of information moving between sensory input and motor output occurs inThe association cortex
The ability to know our world, but attending to, identifying and planning responses to internal and external demandsCognition
Term used to describe the “Dominant” hemisphere of the brainCategorical (normally on the left)
Term used to describe the “non-dominant” hemisphere of the brainRepresentational

Lesions of the categorical hemisphere results in
Aphagias

Lesions of the representative hemisphere results in
Aprosodia
What is an aprosodiaDisorder effecting the emotional content of language
Emotional, nonverbal, and intuitive procedural memory is handled by theRight hemisphere (normally the representative hemisphere)
Recognition of objects via their form, and recognitions of sounds (ex. music) is facilitated by theRepresentative hemisphere
A right hemisphere lesion –> agnosia which may manifest iself as the inability to identify whatObjects when placed in your hand
(Normally in the right temporal or parietal assoc cortex)
A lesion to the right parietal lobe assoc cortex will manifest asContralateral neglect syndrome
Patients who are unaware of their right hemisphere disability are commonly unconcerned, euphoric, or unable to recognize emotions in others, and are calledAnosognosia

Behavior and motor planning
Prefrontal cortex
Maintenance of personalityPrefrontal cortex
Organization of thoughts and behaviors w/ self-directed goalsPrefrontal cortex
Patient states that people he knows have discussed a change in his characterPossible lesion in prefrontal cortex
Patient lacks restraint and shows boastful, physical prowess with little social restraintPossible lesion in prefrontal cortex

Patient is unable too plan for the future
Possible lesion in prefrontal cortex

Lesion in Brocas area of left prefrontal cortex results in
Brocas aphasia
Brocas aphasia presents as difficulty expressing thoughts in what waywith spoken language – called expressive, nonfluent motor aphasia
Lesion of brocas areas may not manifest as spoken aphasia but instead aswritten agraphia
Lesion of the orbitofrontal cortex will cuase whatDisconnection of the Prefrontal cortex from the limbic system
Lesioin of the orbitofrontal cortex results inLess profound emotional response
Reduction in anxiety
Lack of inhibition
Lack of initiative
Difficulty in changing strategies

Performing a lobotomy is essentially the same thing as
Creating a lesion of the orbitofrontal cortex and disconnecting the prefrontal lobe from the limbic system
Patients with frontal lobe damage may lack what ability –> difficulty in societyRestraint (Judgement, Foresight, Delayed Gratification, Self-governance)

Also may lack:
Initiative (Curiosity, Spontaneity)
Order (Abstract reasoning, Working memory)

Lesions of the temporal and parietal lobes often occur together b/cShare same blood supply from the MCA
DIfficulty in comprehending speech or in reading comprehension due to MCA occlusionWernickes aphagia
Lesion in the pathways between Wernickes area and Brocas area (The Arcuate Fasciculus) will result inConduction aphagia
Inability to name objects is due to a lesion of theAngular gyrus –> anomic aphasia
Loss of all language skills: comprehension, reading, speaking, writingglobal aphasia
Patient cannot identify an onject regardless of their senses are functioning normallyTemporal lobe lesion –> Agnosia
Inability to identify an onject by touch alone, regardless of lack of sensory deficitTemporal lobe lesion –> Astereognosis
Inability to recognize old face or remember new facesProsopagnosia
Loss of ability to carry out skilled movements and gestures (despite desire to do so)Apraxia
The most likely region of the brain effected during ApraxiaParietal lobe
Inability to appreciate emotional aspects of a verbal message
Inability to express emotion in speech
No disturbance of language
Lesion of parietal lobe in representational hemisphere

Inability to acknowledge the side of the body (or world) that is contralateral to the representative hemisphere of the brain
Hemiasomatognosia
(Contralateral Neglect Syndrome)

The right parietal lobe handles attention for both the left and the right, but the left pariental lobe only handles attention for the right. A lesion of the left parietal lobe causing a loss of attention is not an issue because
The right parietal lobe compensates

The right parietal lobe handles attention for both the left and the right, but the left pariental lobe only handles attention for the right. A lesion of the right parietal lobe is a problem because
The left parietal lobe alone will not give attention to the left side of the world

The right parietal lobe handles attention for both the left and the right, but the left pariental lobe only handles attention for the right. A lesion of the left parietal lobe, and a partial lesion of the left parietal lobe can cause what problem
Neglect of the right side of the perceived world
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