Life Span Development Exam
Human development theories provide an explanation for patterns of stability and change. There are ranges of Ideas embedded wealth each theory along with mechanisms tort change and predictions tort growth. Each theory recognizes tactual aspects of human development. -Keeping this thought in mind discuss the Cognitive and Behaviorism view with 3 sound factual aspects, a brief example to exemplify each theory & overall sound personal reasoning aspects to explain the premise of the hurry with regards to biological, psychological & societal emphasis for development.
Cognitive view consists of cognition which Is the organizing and meaning of experiences consisting of synthesizing, Justification, analyzing and reasoning, problem solving and memories. Also with waning to achieve equilibrium, this Is a balance between organized structures (motor, sensory and cognitive). When the structures are in equilibrium they deliver other effective ways of interacting with the surrounding environment. Whenever changes happen it may require an adjustment and when this happens is it called disequilibrium.
It also deals with balance which is achieved through schemas (assimilation, adaptation and accommodation). Assimilation- Interpreting new experiences to adjust with existing experiences, a cognitive example of this could be you move Into a new neighborhood and you have attended a catholic church since you were born, but the neighborhood you Just moved into everyone there is Jewish. With assimilation you would still attend your catholic church but you are will to learn more about your neighbors and their religion. Adaptation- making adjustments to schemas to balance new and old information.
A Sensory example of this could be you work outside all day in the sunlight and by the time you come home from work it is dark outside. You walk into your home and your family has all the lights on, you go a turn them down a little so Its not so bright Inside, you’re making an adjustment so that you’re k In your environment. Accommodation- Interpreting the old experiences. A motor example to this would be you deiced that you are going to go for a run but you are really unsure about it because last time you went running you tripped on a tree branch and broke your ankle.
You decide that you are still going to go but you are just going to try and deferent way and be more aware of your surroundings. It also deals with the cognitive development of Seniority which happens from Birth to months. Infants learn mostly through trial and error learning during this stage along with object permanence. Pre-operational which happens from age 2 to about 5/6 years old, in this stage children can mentally signify events and objects and engage in symbolic play (I. E. Playing house or school).
Their thoughts and communications are normally egocentric. Egocentrics refers to the child’s inability to sees deferent tuitions from others point of view. Concrete which happens from the ages 617 to about 1 1 years old also known as the turning point in the child’s cognitive development because this is where the beginning to logical or operational thought The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (I. E. Understand what rules are) but they can only really apply this logic to physical objects.
Children become less egocentric and learn how to become better at conservation tasks. At this point the child will understand that even though the appearance of something changes, the thing itself does not. Formal which happens from age 12 and goes on, as adolescents enter this stage they gain the ability to think more in an abstract way and the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way. At this stage they start manipulate ideas in their head without any dependency on manipulation (formal operational stage).
Behaviorism viewpoints consist of people lie Pavlov’s classical conditioning, Skinner operant conditioning and Bandanna’s learning (social). Pavlov’s classical conditioning deals with stimulus within the environment affecting the learning process, neutral stimulus brings about a response when paired tit a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. Before conditioning a neutral stimulus evokes interest but no other response (INS=NOR). Then there is an unconditioned stimulus unlearned response. And lastly there is a conditioned response that takes place due to conditioning (INS+USC=CRY).
Skinners Operant conditioning deals with role of repetition and consequences and voluntary response are either strengthen or weaken, dealing with reinforcements either positive or negative. Bandanna’s learning (social) deals with observation and imitation. When the imitation was rewarded the imitation was more likely to continue. But when the imitation was punished the imitation was more likely to stop. 2. Discuss your views on abortion in connection with the various trimesters with sound factual connections to development in the trimester, any trimester legalities and or concerns & personal reasoning.
When it comes to abortion everyone is entitled to their own views on the issue, but when looking at the 3 trimesters there are things people should know about abortion really works. As per our text a pregnancy that is aborted before 12 weeks is done by dilating the cervix and removing the contents. Before the 12 week mark the pregnancy is still in the 1st remitter and the unborn baby is developed as far as movement, grasp reflex, central nervous system. But if a woman considers getting an abortion that it is guarded by the US constitutions protection of privacy.
If a woman considers getting an abortion after 12 weeks things become a little bit more complicated. After 12 weeks the abortion would be induced with an injection of a saline solution or an injection of prostaglandin which will stimulate labor and you could actually have to birth the baby or the other option is to have the fetus removed surgically by a procedure very lose to a C-section. Now after 12 weeks you are into the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, when you are into the 2nd trimester the baby is developed as far as sucking and swallowing, hair starts to grow and sensitivity to touch, light and taste.
The legal context of abortion during the ins trimester is that there could be some restrictions on being able to get an abortion, due to the possible health risks to the mother. When into the 3rd trimester the baby has developed as far as starting to be able to regulate its body temp, coordination with sucking and swallowing. But when it comes own to possibly being a to get an abortion this late in a pregnancy it’s a little more to a slimmer chance due to the tact that the baby nave a g chance to surviving outside the whom and depending on what state you live in the state could choose to not permit the abortion.
Personally I feel that if you choose to have an abortion that it should be done before the 12 week mark anything after that I feel that if you really feel that you cannot raise the baby that you should put it up for adoption because after the 12 week mark the baby has reached too many developmental mile stones. . Erosion’s theory is considered a psychosocial theory of development with main concepts that exist within all stages of development regardless of what stage an individual is within. Discuss the premise behind psychosocial development in general and identify the main concepts of Erosion’s viewpoint within his theory that are carried forward throughout all stages of development. (Do not identify each stage of development; you are explaining the premise. -Select any stage of development and discuss the main aspects with identification to age parameters, stage and stage concerns. Discuss the central process for resolution of crises. Explain how to process through a crisis making connections to personal and societal expectations (relationships) and connections to cognitive and behavioral strategies (coping).
If it is easier to create a scenario and give examples with each part of this question do so… Be sure to make identification to the personal, societal, cognitive and behavioral aspects within your example… Erosion’s theory of psychosocial theory of development basic concepts deal with the stages of development, development tasks, psychosocial crisis, central process for solution, significant relationships and coping behaviors. When asked to explain one of the stages, I’m going to explain the Infancy stage.
The Infancy life stage development tasks: maturation of sensory/ perceptual and motor functions, communication, attachment, emotional development. The psychosocial crisis is trust versus mistrust; central process is mutuality with the caregiver. The prime adaptive ego quality is hope and the core pathology is withdrawal and the applied topic is the role of the parents. Some examples of this stage would be a baby cries and its mother or father comes onto the room with a bottle and to check to see if the baby needs to be changed.
The baby comes used to this but one day the baby starts to cry and no one comes into the room the baby then has to find a way to sooth its self without help from mom or dad. Another example is dealing with the trust and mistrust, is you bring your baby with you to a friend’s house and everyone wants to hold her. She is fine and not crying until your friend Jim is holding her she won’t stop until she was back in your arms. Reason being when she was in Jims arms she didn’t feel “safe” and felt that she couldn’t trust him. And her coping behavior about not feeling safe was to cry and the central process was to be back in your arms. . Freud is well known for his psychosocial views on development across the life span as well as personality development. Freud derived 3 levels of the personality for all individuals. Discuss and identify with the inclusion of 3 factual aspects for each level of the personality and the impact from one level to the next. Fraud’s personality structure that en developed was the id, ego and super ego. The Id’s functions represent impulses and drives and instincts. It is existing at birth and s a pleasure principle that represents the motivation for pleasure and avoidance of pain.
The old is the; I want, I need, and I have to have. It’s all about you and what you want with no regard to others needs and wants. The Ego functions represent the more rational part of your mind. It develops within the first 6 to 8 months of life; it represents self, self-concept, self-esteem and self-connecting to others. The ego responds to the needs of the super ego and old to try and find a balance between them. The Ego develops out of growing awareness that you can’t always get what you ant. The Ego relates to the “real world” and functions thru what’s called the reality principle.
Reality principle is the actions for response to the ‘d, waiting for socially acceptable opportunity for a response. This is kind of how everyone is all the time it’s that middle grounded between the old and Superego. The Superego functions represent is the last part of the mind that develops the “moral part”. It deals with the conscience representing thoughts of punishment and reward, what is proper and improper, and the difference between right and wrong. These things happen with he help of identification connection and internalized parents.
Identification connection deals with love, fear, values, motivation from parent’s morals and standards. Then the internalized parent is that little voice in your head when you are doing something and you feel maybe I should or shouldn’t do this. The Superego is your morals, how you want things to be and you really think about it before you do it. How the ‘d, Ego and Superego work with each is the Ego is your reality between the old and Superego. The old is your primal what you feel is the essential, and the Superego is your moral.
Think of it this way the old does what it wants when it wants and has no regards of what kind of consequences there maybe, dealing with your unconscious mind. Then the Ego is you reality part dealing with things like your self-esteem and confidence and recognizes that other have needs and the world isn’t Just about you, makes you think in the reality. Then the Superego makes you over think things dealing with your conscience. It is believed that people who have the healthiest mind the Ego is strongest part. It will satisfy the needs of the old but keeping with reality but also satisfying the morals of the Superego.