LESSON 1.6 THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT (LOAC)

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Armed ConflictFighting between States or armed violence between government authorities and organized armed groups.
Law of Armed ConflictA Branch of International Law, the Law that States have agreed to accept as binding upon them in their dealings with other States
CombatantAnyone Participating in military Operations or Activities

NoncombatantsAll others including civilians not engaged in hostilities
Lawful CombatantOne Authorized to take up arms in service of a Sovereign State
Proper Objects of CaptureMedical Supplies and Vehicles
DD Form 1394Special Geneva Conventions Identification Card Issued to all US DOD humanitarian personnal
medical personnel, chaplains, other persons captured or detained, and people who surrender, are captured, shipwrecked, sick, or wounded.International Humanitarian Law*
Hague Convention*
Geneva Conventions*
POW – Prisoner of War
OPFOR – Opposing Force(s)
LOAC – Law of Armed Conflict
State the Purpose of the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)The Law of Armed Conflict contains a set of clearly defined principles. These principles are practical, reflect the realities of conflict and, most important of all, do not include anything that a professional war fighter could not apply in battle. They strike a balance between humanity and military necessity, and are valid at all times, in all places and under all circumstances.
You are not free to do what you want!!!
Protected statusNoncombatants
-Armed forces medical personnel*
-Armed forces chaplains
Those who have laid down their arms
Those considered hors de combat (due to wounds or injury
*Actions deemed inappropriate by enemy forces may result in denial of protected status
LOAC PurposeIntegrate humanity into war
Preserve the fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy
Assist in restoring peace
Established through
Hague Convention
First meeting in 1893
Mission to settle international disputes through an international court system in lieu of warfare
Focuses on regulating the methods of warfare (tactics, weapons, and targeting decisions)
Geneva Convention (1949)Four conventions that evolved from earlier conventions of 1864, 1906, and 1929
Focused on establishing protection for “victims of war”
State How the Law of Armed Conflict Applies to Prisoners of War, Sick and Wounded Personnel, Civilians, and Captured Medical Department Personnel
Geneva Convention (1949) has four treaties
Wounded and Sick in the Field
Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked at Sea
Prisoners of War
Civilians
Under these treaties medical treatment must be rendered to the wounded, sick and non-combatants
Prisoners of War, Sick/Wounded, and Civilians If capturedMedical personnel and Chaplains are considered neutral
Medical personnel and Chaplains may only be required to perform medical and religious duties
Explain the principles of the Law of Armed Conflict that apply to medical personnel, facilities, vehicles, aircraft and ships
LOAC PrinciplesPrinciples of LOAC that apply to medical personnel, facilities, vehicles, aircraft and ships
Three categories of persons who are protected for their work in aiding the wounded and sickFirst category – Medical personnel
Second category – Auxiliary medical support personnel of the Armed Forces
Third category – Personnel of aid societies of neutral countries
Medical units and establishmentMay not be attacked, provided they are non hostile
CDRs encouraged to set up establishments away from military objectives
If these fall into the hands of the enemy, medical personnel are allowed to continue care
Medical personnel are allowed to carry small arms for their own defense and the defense of their patients only
Small arms are defined as a handheld firearm such as a semi-automatic weapon
Despite current US practice of not wearing a clearly identifiable arm band, Geneva Conventions have indicated the wearing of the arm band as a requirement of battlefield medical personnel. Caution!
Medical personnel who step outside of the non-combatant role and claim “humanitarian” status upon capture by enemy forces may be subjected to severe retaliation. Medical personnelNoncombatant
Clearly identifiable
White arm band bearing red cross
Authorized to use weaponry in defensive posture
Medical TransportationVehicles and Aircraft
May not be attacked when transporting a patient or medical supplies
Whether used permanently or temporary
Must be marked with an approved distinctive emblem
Hospital ShipsAll exterior surfaces shall be white
One or more dark red crosses, as large as possible, shall be painted and displayed on each side of the hull and on the horizontal surfaces, so placed as to afford the greatest possible visibility from the sea and from the air
Must be used exclusively to assist, treat and transport the wounded, sick and shipwrecked
Hospital shipsDetermined non-combatant
White hull with appropriate markings
Crewed by civilians of Military Sealift Command (MSC)
Staffed by USN/DOD medical personnel
Two Mercy-class vessels in service of the United StatesUSNS Mercy (T-AH-19), home port San Diego, CA
USNS Comfort (T-AH-20) , Home port Baltimore, MD
1000 bed capacity each
Originally built as San Clemente-class oil tankers
1.6.1 Define selected terms and abbreviations associated with the Law of Armed Conflict
1.6.2 State the purpose of the Law of Armed Conflict
1.6.3 State how the Law of Armed Conflict applies to prisoners of war, sick and wounded personnel, civilians, and captured medical department personnel
1.6.4 Explain the principles of the Law of Armed Conflict that apply to medical personnel, facilities, vehicles, aircraft and ships
1.6.5 Determine the appropriate action to be taken by a
Hospital Corpsman using wartime scenarios
Law of Armed Conflict Three Purposes1. Integrate Humanity into War
2. Preserve the Fundamental Human Rights of Persons who fall to
3. Assist in Restoring Peace
Geneva ConventionVictims of War
Hague Conventionmethods of warfare (tactics, weapons, and targeting decisions)
Medical personnel and chaplainsmay only be required to do medical and religious Activities.
armed conflict?fighting between states
law of armed conflict?law on proper fighting
combatant?combating personnel
noncombatantspersonnel not combating
lawful combatantsauthorized to fight
proper objects of capturemedical supplies, vehicles
DD form 1394ID card issued to humanitarian personnel
POW stands for?prisoner of war
OPFOR stands for?opposing forces
LOAC stands for?law of armed conflict
3 purposes of law of armed conflict?humanity, human rights, restore peace
when is the law of armed conflict valid?always
what was the first meeting of the LOAC?hague convention
when was the hague convention?1893
what was the point of the hague convention?settle disputes without warfare
what was the focus of the hague convention?regulate weapons, targets, tactics
when was the geneva convention?1949
what was the purpose of the geneva convention?POW treatment
what are the 4 treaties of the geneva convention?wounded, shipwrecked, POW, civilians
medical treatment must be rendered to whom?wounded, sick
what personnel is considered neutral after capture?medical, chaplain
medical, chaplains are only allowed to perform?medical, religious duties
how many categories of persons are protected under the LOAC3
first category of protected personnelmedical
second category of protected personnelauxiliary
third category of protected personnelaid society
other LOAC protected entities, other than the 3 categoriesmedical units, transportation
if medical personnel are captured, they are still allowed to what?continue care
medical personnel are allowed to carry small arms when in defense of?self, patients
medical vehicles must be marked with?red cross
when can medical vehicles not be attacked?when transporting patients
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