Leaders still expect
This is similar to Autocratic leadership style. Leaders still expect complete control and dictate to its workers what tasks need to be done, which again can de motivate in some cases. Although, unlike autocratic, there will be concern for the social and physical needs of the team members, which will make the staff feel more valued, therefore are highly motivated. However, when there is concern for each individual worker; inconsistencies arise which can cause competition, envy and bad feeling between the workforce, affecting teamwork and performance.
Democratic The setting of tasks and objectives is reached by majority consensus where, the leader will consult individuals to find out their opinion. The leader’s skill is to obtain the best information and try to keep the dissenting voices on board. This will improve motivation and good feeling within the organisation, as the team will feel some power of responsibility and recognition. However, this could also affect teamwork and performance as it can lead to some team members forming groups which do not agree with the objectives and tasks set, causing a lot of conflict. These groups are more likely to form in democratic work places as employees are allowed to make their own choices and decisions , and have their own opinions , unlike an autocratic environment.
Laissez Faire The Laissez Faire leader will allow staff to develop their own ideas and follow them where they wish to go, but overall the leader will still manage their decisions. The leader must be able to allow the team members to follow their own direction and ensure everyone is pulling in the same direction, and if managed will, this can be very productive for the organisation as team members will be well motivated, work together, and feel as if they have some power/ responsibility. Although, some members who are unable to be self motivated will lose direction.
In my opinion, I believe that a democratic leader is the most effective style of leadership, as it means the employer has a good relationship with employees as well as still having power to ensure that production targets are met. This type of environment would make staff motivated as they would be more happy at work rather than in an autocratic environment, which is very strict. Although , this type of management style can be effective in different circumstances such as the army, which needs strict orders and powerful leaders. In order to highlight the importance of teamwork within an organisation, I have completed a case study on a team building weekend for the company; Torrey Miller plc. (Attached in the appendix)
Team work is important in companies such as Torrey Miller Plc, as it establishes relationships between employees and employees feel satisfied and needed. Teams are also important so that members can help each other when fulfilling objectives and to exert influence on each other or onto other groups. Team building weekends such as the one carried out in this company, are advantageous to everyone, as they break down the barriers and positions of power with all employees and new roles are established. Managers may not be as good at the task, as their employee, so roles, such as ones set in theories from Belbin, will be reallocated, and it gives everyone a chance to see each other on the same level.
During the weekend, the team will go through the same formation as when teams are formed in the workplace. Firstly the forming stage, when everyone comes together and gets into their groups. Storming, when there is firstly conflict if an individual is unable to carry out the task and needs help. Then, norming, where they work together and they establish what they must do in order to overcome the obstacle. Then, finally, performing, where they are working together and achieving their objectives. Good relationships will be formed which would not normally have been possible within their normal working environment as they would not have had the contact to allow them to be established.
This will improve motivation which means good results for the company, as everyone will show a more positive attitude to work. Employees, such as Katrina in this case study, shouldn’t have negative attitude towards the team building weekend. However she has quite a powerful position in the company and she doesn’t want to lose her managerial status. She initially feels that the weekend will be unprofessional and ‘playing’ which is not suitable between herself and work colleagues. Although, when she actually goes on the weekend she realises that its fun and she learned a lot from her colleagues and has firmed new relationships.
At the company The Principality, fun activities and nights out are used successfully to bring the employees closer together. Social events are highly encouraged within the company. It erodes the barriers which exist within the hierarchy of managers and employees, meaning they can communicate on the same level which is not always possible in the workplace. New bonds are forged and people become more accessible to each other as a result which means greater co-operation and teamwork.
Activities such as dance groups and tasks unrelated to work are held to show the different sides of peoples; and to show the different skills that they have which wouldn’t be achieved in the confines of their job. This will indicate characteristics which could be developed in a work scenario and lead to promotion prospects. The atmosphere of the work place is also changed when fundraising and charity events are held, such as Dress Down Day, Halloween and Easter Bonnet Parade. This would make the work place more relaxed and fun, and make everyone more motivated if they have occasional days like this which take a break from the normal routine. It allows management the opportunity to integrate more with their staff and to build on the relationships that have already been fostered.
As I work in a retail environment in o2, I constantly have to work as part of a team. We work as team to achieve our targets as a store, and to get simple tasks done such as cleaning at the end of the day where we all have a task to do, such as cashing up, mopping etc. We especially worked as a team, on the release day of the Iphone. We all had our separate roles, which we had trained for in advance to be done on the day. I was ‘Till Hero’, and was operating the tills for the night while other members had roles such as Concierge and Business As Usual. To understand what roles we had , and what we must achieve, beforehand we had a meeting. The manager is democratic, and although is laid back, he can still delegate well. He also allows us to give our own inputs into the meetings. The meeting was actually very informal which made everyone feel relaxed; as we were allowed to wear ordinary clothes and snacks were provided.
The advantage of us working in a team was that all the tasks were completed efficiently rather than one person trying to do everything at once. The drawback was that as you were in charge of one whole task to yourself, there was pressure on you encase you went wrong as you had to work by yourself., and I didn’t want the team to fail because of me so this motivated me to keep going and do my best. However, I do not think that all of the roles identified by Belbin were covered, the ‘Completer Finisher’ role I believe was not as effective as it should have been as the leader has not delegated this role, no one was allocated to come around and ‘chivvy’ us along. Therefore I believe that outcomes of the task were not as successful as they could have been.
This could have been improved if there was one person whose role was to help anyone who was struggling or needed help with something, as there was a lot of reliability on yourself to do well. It was also apparent that some members of the team were only interested I their particular group-whilst I was concerned about the overall team performance it was apparent that others were not. Those who were working on ‘Business As Usual’ seemed to exclude themselves from the activities- their role was to deal with normal enquiries but if they did not have any, they still did not come and help those who were busy with the promotion. This again was due to the leader not explaining their responsibilities fully.
Overall, from studying teamwork, I can see that there are many different aspects, which need to be thought about when forming a team, such as the size and roles within the team. I have also seen how different types of leadership styles can motivate or de-motivate a team, although I believe that the leadership style depends on the people and task that needs to be completed. As, for example individuals may have objectives and needs different from those of the team as a whole, which can cause conflict unless planned efficiently. I am now going to look at leadership in some more detail.
Leadership An essential factor for the success of any business or team is the effectiveness of its management. Mintzberg identified 10 roles which all managers fulfil. They fall into 3 general categories; Interpersonal roles The interpersonal roles of a manager are those concerned with dealing with other people; acting as a figurehead, leading and liaising with others. Informational roles The informational roles of a manager are concerned with gathering and distributing information about specific tasks and the general work of the managers’ department or organisation. The tasks may be routine, and part of the day-to-day running of the department, or one off events such as the manufacture and delivery of a special consignment. The 3 informational roles which Mintzberg identifies are; monitory the progress of the task, disseminating information, and acting as a spokesman for the department or people for whom the manager is responsible.
Decisional Roles The decisional roles of a manager are concerned with planning for the work of his or her department and taking decisions to ensure this work is carried out successfully. Mintzberg identifies 4 decisional roles; Acting as an entrepreneur in order to get the task started, acting as a ‘disturbance handler’, allocating resources and negotiating with others to get the best from the people.