How is the live events industry dealing with negative impacts effecting the Environment
Two of the main Management issues discuss in this report are how are event organisations lowering Co2 emissions and what waste management techniques and applications are being used. Both issues are becoming increasingly more important within this sector. Both indirectly relate to each other. The carbon footprint of any event has the opportunity be down sized. This can be tackled by addressing these management issues from an eco friendly perspective. At any festival or any given time when people are brought together in an environment that would normally be static, there is bound to be waste and pollution.
Green house gas is produced accordingly to the activity; Unfortunately the study by www. agreenerfestival. com shows that music festival fans still have a lot to learn as 13% of people surveyed said they wouldn’t recycle. The real drive for festivals to adopt a greener more ethical approach comes from within the industry. There are many pioneers acting within the industry and their waste management methods are effective and getting better year by year.
One question that needs to be answered is, is being green a negative for promoters because they might have to sacrifice potential revenue or charge more for the ticket and would the punters pay? These issues spread further afield than the green fields of a festival, they affect the whole world. Global warming and recycling are at the tips of many peoples toungs and many believe that a festival is a good place to get people talking and re-educate them on the matter. This report has input from key industry personnel and the findings have suggested some management techniques and methods that are already being used within the industry.
They cover areas such as what suppliers promoters can use, educational methods that can be adopted, waste management techniques and what recycling targets have been made. The future for carbon neutral festivals does not seam that far away when looking at the Sunrise Celebration and their environmental policys but there is still a long way to go for many. The question that this project proposes to answer is ‘How is the live events industry dealing with negative impacts effecting the environment? ‘
The implication of this question has lead to many interesting findings and the aims and objectives of this project are as follows Review current literature regarding sustainability and live event tourism including management issues and developing solutions for them * Interview key industry personnel and develop a case study to enable comparison between industry practices and attitudes * Identify new business models being used within the festival sector, what’s new, what’s feasible and what are already being used? * Develop a section of recommendations that can be transferable to the workplace Methodology This project uses qualitative research methods. To explore the research question qualitative interviews were carried out and the use of a case study.
A generic interview was designed using semi structured open questions. Using this interview design enabled the responders to ‘reflect and expand’ (p. 29 Davies 2007). The use of reflection and expansion invited and encouraged depth on the subject. The interviews were undertaken by using e-mail and telephone mediums. The reason for using these mediums is because the responders invited to take part in this study are key industry personnel with busy schedules. The telephone interview was arranged well before the date of the interview to prepare all persons involved. The e-mail interviews were agreed beforehand also.
The respondents are all personal contacts who have a specific interest in the subject area so they were keen to take part. Factors that affected the access of these key industry personnel included geographical distance, busy work schedules and economic resources. The benefits included time efficiency; cost saving and giving the respondents the freedom and time they needed to answer the questions. This interview was conducted from a strategic sample specific (p. 143 Davies 2007). The target group fitted this sampling type because of time available and the nature of people’s attitudes when involving themselves in studies such as this one.
Some of the responses that contributed were also sourced from company’s websites, personal work experiences which lead to gaining key industry contacts. The workplace case study was taken from one event in time to provide an in-depth practical description of what is realistic to happen within this industry. This complemented the interview responses and made the argument stronger. Analysis of results was conducted in several ways. The telephone interview was transcribed. The email responses and the telephone interview were then compiled together in to a table. Please see appendix 1.
The information derived from the websites and the case study was also added to the discussion of findings. The interpretative of similar content introduced threads and themes to look for differences to compare and contrast. Because of the reliability of the sources used produced masses of discussion of findings. The sources used are considered credible. This has proved to be supported by the literature and secondary research that has been undertaken. The ethics adopted for this project informed all involved of the rule of consent. It was important to ensure that confidentiality and anonymity was considered.
The informed consent method involved telling all involved who you are, what the information will be used for and why this project is taking place. All names mentioned have given prior approval. Revised Literature Review The literature concerning environmental impacts, green issues and sustainability is wide and increasing in many areas. One area is the link established between tourism and sustainability two key texts are Mowforth and Munt (2007) and Middleton and Hawkins. Mowforth and Munt’s literature is extremely informative with up to date with the concepts of the subject matter of sustainability and the implications it has on the world.
This is relevant to the project as it identifies a different class of tourists’ and this catchments area is alternative tourism, festival tourism is in this category, and t is an international industry. This literature clearly explains what an ‘ecological footprint’ provides a means of quantifying environmental impacts in a single easy understandable indicator; it also provides a means of quantifying opportunities for cost savings’. This is a clear indication of a management issue that causes profit loss if not managed properly, this may not be true in the short term but the long term’s opportunity is the key.
Middleton and Hawkins literature reports in detail about the human activity that is causing Green house gas emissions; it addresses these issues as nothing new and relates these issues to the tourism & live events industry. It point out that ‘many critics who believe that tourism is a primary cause of environmental pollution and degradation’ joining this whit the issues of renewable energy sources for public use, gives good incite into the ways of improving sustainable practice but says the push comes from within the industry.
This book also shows the ‘R word methodology’ ‘necessary shift in the industry, decreasing the exciting usage of scarce resources. The R word is an effective waste management programme, this give opportunity to compare this method with others such as the Xerox corporation (1998) Bowdin and the waste wise event plan www. wastewise. com, the most effective and easy to implement will be identified. Two central concepts and identified management issues of ecological footprints and waste management techniques are developed in the current market place.
The environmental issues in relationship to event management are expressed in the literature published by Yeoman et al (2006) and Getz et al (DATE). The Author Yeoman et al has covered issues in a detailed account of Events Management as an overview, it states the implications and use of different methods and technology and also gives some key impact solutions, what is needed to research the chosen subject. It gives critical case studies and looks at the behaviour & relationships within this field. Up to date and informative methods are introduced along with solutions that could be used in the practical world of work.
Because this literature is looking at the issues from a international and cultural perspective it is relevant and covers a wide range of positive and negative management issues. Getz argues that events can have a special relationship to the environment. This relationship can powerfully motivate, travel, and animate an otherwise static attraction. This creates positive image of destinations and can mobilise community planning’ this can be related to the new trend emerging in the industry where policies become greener.
The vision of events becoming greener can be noticed in the efforts and marketing of specific events, they include Glastonbury, T in the Park, and the Glade festival. It should be the promoter’s responsibility to promote ethical consumption and protect the environment This literature also reviews important subject areas such as the environmental perspective, they suggest that using the festival as an educational platform can heighten awareness and makes reference to the relationship between the event and the environment.
Bowdin (2006) highlights the characteristics that attract people to idyllic settings that rural festivals tend to be situated. ‘However, host environments may be extremely delicate and great care should be taken to protect them’. (P. 44) he then goes on to recommend that an environmental impact assessment could be carried out to help recognise the potential negative impacts. The positive impacts are discussed due to using an urban city because of the infrastructure and transport links available.
The concern for waste management, recycling and sustainability are examined in detail and the SEXI (sustainable exhibition industry) is introduced. From this research project there have been many identified guides to waste reduction available including the Xerox Corporation guide for waste reduction and recycling specifically at special events. Kemp (2000) introduced the environment from a ‘outdoor’ perspective, not much credit is given to negative environmental impacts within this literature and another Shone and Parry (2004) do not address environmental issues as a separate discussion.
The move for festivals to operate environmentally friendly policies to lessen potential negative impacts can be observed when looking at websites that promote certain festivals. A Greener Festival is a not for profit company boasting one of the most informative studies on environmental issues. It is derived from Claire O’Neills dissertation titled ‘Should UK Music Festival organisers implement environmentally friendly practices into event management? This website contained qualitive and quantities research obtained from 649 music festival attendees and 15 industry personnel.
The findings present interesting and educational purposes. This literature can be used for industry personnel when considering making their festival greener. It pays particular attention to the subject areas such a waste management, water reduction, noise pollution, land damage and Co2 emissions. It reports on people’s attitudes towards the ‘greening’ of festivals from both sides of the industry. This website comes on recommendation from every respondent to this study. Some may say it has changed the way the industry operates.
An example of the research of interest is that ‘2% of the 56 festival-goers comments were to the nature that festivals are one-off events and whilst they should be environmentally friendly, there are “bigger fish to fry”. This supports the argument put forward by Shone and Parry (2004) that most events have little impact, and environmentalism and sustainability should not be given undue attention’ This proves that people from across the industries scale are working together to improve EFP’s and this should not go without undue attention that it deserves.
The literature on the Sunrise Celebration website can also be used to ensure a more eco friendly event. The sunrise festival is incredibly eco conscious and the majority attendees share the same attitude as the organisers. The website shows this festivals environmental policy which covers vital areas such as the recycling rules and methods implemented on site, on site composting, water reduction techniques, Transport guidelines, compostable toilets , energy use and gives examples of what energy saving and alternative sources they use.
This website also takes education at the festival very seriously, they claim to provide ‘guilt free partying’ and in future years hope to be a completely carbon neutral festival. This organisation is certainly one of the most eco friendly on the market and a lot can be learned from their EFP’s. They carry out a carbon footprint analysis after every event and set a target to lower this for their next event. They are committed to raise awareness and this is very important in the battle on climate change.
It is important to note hear that not all festival websites are promoting their environmentally friendly policies; this is because 1/3 still have not adopted any policies. This indicates a split market attitude. The move towards creating sustainable greener festivals is highlighted in current journals and articles linked to the live events industry. There are many voices being herd within the media such as Ben Challis, and Christopher Barrett. They have produced articles that have been compared and contrasted below.
One article shows how the music industry can be a ‘key player in the fight against climate change’. The environmental group called Julies Bicycle has been commissioned to release a report on the green house gas emissions caused by the music industry as a whole. It stated that ‘the industry is equipped to deal with reducing its current 538,000 tonnes of carbon (Co2) emissions and can help set the agenda for other business sectors to improve energy use’ The figure for the live events sector is responsible for is 401,000 tonnes per anon.
This is 75% of all emissions of the whole industry . The majority of this comes from audience travel and this account for 43% (230,000 tonnes) of the whole UK music market. This is why when discussing the findings audience travel keeps occurring and is the biggest environmental issue that needs to be addresses. Please see appendix 3. It gives recommendations for best practice including ‘identifying and highlighting all options for travel for event goers’.
The article then goes on to introduce the working group compiled by JB the members include Universal chairman and CEO David Joseph, MMF chief executive Jon Webster and Festival Republics MD Melvin Benn to name a few. The report and supporting work done by JB and all of the major organisations involved is said to put the music industry ‘ahead of the curve’ and this ‘model of consensual industry co-operation’ could be used by other industries (Tickell 2008) This report how’s how serious the music industry is about heading towards a ‘greener’ future.
Another report published by music week could be seen as The follow up to the article ‘A force for change, the music industry ramps up its environmental campaign’ This paper has input from Katrina Larkin who is the event organiser for the Big Chill and Melvin Benn from Festival Republic. ” this is really the beginning of the music industry saying ‘let’s establish what our carbon footprint is and let’s see how we can begin to address the issue of reducing it’… ” (Benn, M 2008). It develops the argument further and focuses on specific environmentally friendly practices. When considering the importance of tackling the problem of transport that is a key priority’ in the fight to reduce the industries carbon footprint. It mentions the fact that urban festivals are considered better for the environment because of the previously existing infrastructure and transport links, but when considering why people go to music festivals one of the main reasons is to relax and party in a idyllic natural setting (green fields).
When looking at the study done by a greener festival. om there is some interesting results regarding ‘would fans travel to an event via public transport if the cost was included in the ticket price’ 65% of festival goers agreed. Glastonbury put this into practices but the promoter Michael Eavis reported saying these tickets were the slowest to sell. The report goes on to talk about how much waste is left at festivals and what methods can be done to minimise this. Live earth has also issues ‘greening guidelines’ available for industry personnel. It identifies the three main issues as transportation, energy and waste.
These are the major issues that have been brought up by most literature and from the respondents involved in this study. Another report highlights the growing problems the live event industry are facing with external factors that are out of their control such as the credit crunch, flash flooding and rising costs of production and fuel. Miserable weather and economic problems are making this industry very competitive and is the reasion why it is very important for the sucess of a festival to build a loyal fan base.
It introduces the AIM (association of indipendedt music festivals) and this is interesting when you compair it to the association of JB’s major heavyweight board opperating on a more commercial bases. This proves that effort is being made from all corners of the industry. Although this report does not comment on enviromental factors affecting the performance of festivals it can be related. Due to problems with international agreements and government tardiness it has taken a long time for the world to wake up and recognise that ‘if we carry on at the rate we are going we are going to need three worlds… e only have one’ Eavis (2007). Government policies are already affecting festivals. This is why it is important for festival organisers to lessen their ecological footprint and developed effective waste management systems this can be currently identified by The British standard publication has been designed to give guidance for a ‘sustainable event management system with guidance for use’ it uses a method of phases that an organisation may adopt to commit to sustainable development.
It defines sustainable development as ‘an enduring, balanced approach to economic activity, environmental responsibility and social progress’. It is aimed at individuals and organisations involved in the events industry ‘to implement a sustainable event management system’ this is noted to be for the entire supply chain, this means everybody involved in the event including all stakeholders and traders and other associated people. This document breaks the event down into stages and specific activities throughout the whole event cycle.
Including planning, implementation/ event production and post production including evaluation. It explains the positive usage of KPI’s (key performance indicators) these are pre-agreed measurements of performance against the objectives of a specific organisation. It shows the importance of planning and monitoring and also the review and follows up the progress of an event. There is a maturity matrix that can be a good tool to use when trying to measure the sustainability and risk factor of any event.
This is a government framework and is a asset to any organisation if used correctly. When considering the ECA report it highlights the importance involved and outlines the government framework and their reduction targets for co2. This website suplied the facts and figures about the targets. And what can be done as a collective and on a personel level. It gives tips on recycling and other sustainable practices that need to be adopted by all in the UK to insure the targets will be met.
There is extensive material on the reduction of Co2 and this can be related to the live events industrie. It is not exclusive to the live events indutry but to the UK as a whole. It is calling out to all commerse, private households, and goverment organisations. There are other websites available that able the viewer to calculate their carbon footprint and do what they can to minimise this. Again this can be done by anyone if it be an individual or an organisation.
A literature search of enviromental journals are now starting to disscuss the UK Live music event industry and the negative impacts its having on the enviroment. Many of the papers concentrate on Glastonbury as a showcase for an enviromental festival. One paper credits the festival for its all round performance regarding charitable causes and waste reduction and are also ‘credited for their strict adherence to environmental protection’ (Sexton, K 2007).
Another Journal that is also using Glastonbury as an example gives the exact number of recycling units that were in use at the 2005 festival ‘more than 20,000 recycling bins are made available during the event where people will put their waste in’ This information was retrieved from an interview with Robert Kearle who is the rubbish manager. At the 2005 festival the recycling rate was 230 tonnes of compost, the 2006 festival had targets to match or beat this figure (Sanderson P 2007) Another journal suggested tips for composting for use at festivals.
It outlines the key components that need to be considered when composting food at festivals; it pays particular attention to the educational aspects involved in using this method. Staff training and providing signage are key to making this technique work (BioCycle 2006). Because these environmental articles address current issues and events they are a good information source but they could use different festivals as case studies because many of them just comment on Glastonbury and also major sport events.