French and Indian War
In the 1750’s, British and French representatives met in order to arrange progress due to territorial disputes, but the issue wasn’t solved because they both wanted control over the North American Region. Marquis Duquesne was made governor-general of New France with orders to take over the Ohio Valley, and get rid of the British who were in the area, which was done in 1752. ‘The following year, he had sent troops west of Pennsylvania where they built forts at Presque Island (Lake Erie) and on the Riviere aux Boeufs (Waterford).
During the same time, Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, was giving land in the Ohio Valley to citizens of his colony which inevitably led to the French and Indian War. ’ http://www. philaprintshop. com/frchintx. html. Robert Dinwiddie heard of the French who were building forts and sent a young Virginia officer, George Washington, as a messenger to demand that the French leave as soon as possible, which Dinwiddie knew was not going to threaten them at all.
As Sir Washington was heading back from delivering the message, he saw a point of land at an intersection of Allegheny and the Monongahela form the Ohio, where he thought would be a brilliant idea to build a fort. Dinwiddie agreed to his suggestion therefore building Fort Prince George, but ended with the French coming and taking over changing the name to Fort Duquesne. Washington ended up moving to the Great Meadows where he and his troops decided in building a fort that would be called, Fort Necessity.
Three days within encampment, Washington and 40 men went looking for a group of French that were seen about seven miles away from Chestnut Ridge. When finding the French they were made prisoners, killed the commander Joseph Coulon de Villiers, and several others were killed as well, especially since it was a surprise attack they surrendered. George Washington won that encounter but the French weren’t about to give up yet. Not to long after, French troops were sent out from Fort Duquesne and defeated the British which left the French in charge of the west Allegheny Mountains.
In 1755, General Edward Braddock came from Britain to America as commander in chief I order to help Britain gain Fort Duquesne back. Again the British had failed, loosing men as well as General Braddock who passed away four days after the battle that had taken place. On the other hand they did win a battle up north, south of the French’s fort Frederick at Crown Point on Lake Champlain. The war known as the French and Indian War (a. k. a. Seven Years War), did not officially start until 1756 even though before hand there was many military activities that were going on previous years.
It was called the French and Indian War because the British Colonists were fighting two enemies-the French and their Native American allies. When news of Braddock being defeated arrived at London that was when Britain declared war on France. The first year of the war it wasn’t successful for the British colony. Native Americans were killing settlers, burning farmhouses and even crops which lead to making families move back to the east where they had come from. Luck began to turn around for the British after William Pitt came as secretary of state and then prime minister.
William Pitt lead the British to victory from his stupendous military skills and with the help of Great Britain that supplied the troops with weapons and anything else they needed, without questioning. In September of 1759, with the persistence of British general James Wolfe had found a way to reach the capital of New France, Quebec which was located under the eyes of the French under a cliff around the St. Lawrence River. General Wolfe traveled through the back of the cliff, where it wasn’t protected, and surprised attacked the French resulting to defeating them.
This battle was known as Battle of Quebec which showed that it was not impossible to attack them. Due to the ‘Fall of Quebec, Montreal ended the war in North America with a treaty. ’ The Treaty was known as the Treaty of Paris of 1763, where France was forced to give up their land east of the Mississippi River as well as Canada to Great Britain and because Spain was allied with France they also got possession of Florida. Great Britain didn’t leave the Spanish empty handed; they received the French’s land west of the Mississippi River (Louisiana Territory) and also the port of New Orleans.
Native Americans lost their trading partners, the French who traded fur; even though they traded with the British they were still considered enemies to the Natives. To prevent wars to evolve in the near future, they didn’t allow settlers to go further west, making another peace treaty. ‘King George III declared that the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western boundary for all the colonies,’ where he proved this in the Proclamation of 1763.