Communication has existed since the beginning of human beings, but it was not until the 20th century that people began to study the process. As communication technologies developed, so did the theories.
Before becoming simply communication, or communication studies, the discipline was formed from three other major studies: psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Psychology is the study of human behaviour, Sociology is the study of society and social process, and anthropology is the study of communication as a factor which develops, maintains, and changes culture. Communication studies focus on communication as central to the human experience, which involves understanding how people behave in creating, exchanging, and interpreting messages.
Communication Theory has one universal law posited by S. F. Scudder (1980). The Universal Communication Law states that, “All living entities, beings and creatures communicate.” All of the living communicates through movements, sounds, reactions, physical changes, gestures, languages, breath, etc. Communication is a means of survival. Examples – the cry of a child (communication that it is hungry, hurt, cold, etc.); the browning of a leaf (communication that it is dehydrated, thirsty by itself, dying); the cry of an animal (communicating that it is injured, hungry, angry, etc.). Everything living communicates in its way for survival.”
So First of all we must have a clear idea of what is communication? Well since 1930 so many management and communication specialists have sought to explain what communication is. For en example TJ and Sandar Larkin, Clampitt (2005) lists three effective approaches to communicate with their employees within a organisation.
– Arrow Theory. – Circuit Theory. – Dance theory.
So as we gone through, what I believe about Communication is, passing the right message on right time to the right people/thing in effective and in decent manor. Most of our time is been spent by communicating. Ex – reading, writing, talking, watching and listening. So it has become a vital part of almost every job.
Explain communication theories, concepts and practises… As you can see in your day to day life communication can be categorise in to several parts.
1. Verbal communication.
2. Nonverbal communication.
3. One-way communication.
4. Tw0-way communication.
TJ and Sandar Larkin, Clampitt (2005) lists three effective approaches to communicate with their employees within en organisation.
– Arrow Theory – Circuit Theory – Dance theory
Communications are carefully constructed and aimed at a target audience. It assumes the more accurate the message, the clearer the understanding of the recipient. Problems arise when it is taken for granted that information is mostly transmitted by words and that recipients are passive (inactive) receptors.
What arrow theory says “I communicate by memos because I know I’ve communicated. Then I know that I did my job”.
Effectiveness – Clearly and precisely put my thoughts into words. – Speak with credibility. – My talk force action.
Communication Breakdowns – Failure= Blame – Failure = Incompetence.
Accoutrements – Pro-management. – Downward comm. – Directive.
Scorecard – Effective Expression = Effective Communication. – Passive Information Processors. – Words contain meaning. – Focus on clear expression. – Links words to actions. Below you can find a bar chart of American researches C. shennon ans weaver. Basically this module illustrates a one-way system.
Since they were interested in how en electrical signal was transmitted along a wire or radio wave and what happen to it during the transmission. Their concept of noise allowed for the distortion and interference of static upon the massage’s signal which might prevent its clear reception.
As technology developed by time to time theories were keeps changing. Accordingly other communication theories have emphasised the two-way nature of communication in which the success of process depends on sender receiving feed back (response from receiver). Hence the regular confirmation we all make over the telephone to assure our contact (sender) that stills we are paying attention, Such as “no” “exactly”, “no”.
Communications are achieved with positive relationships and job satisfaction of employees through understanding and discussion. It assumes that communicating is grounded in mutual understanding. Problems arise because of the negative view that understanding will lead to agreement and that this understanding should be the sole goal of communications.
Key terms – Networking, going with the flow and making connections
• Feedback over response
• Relationship over content
• Process over purpose
• Understanding over compliance
Effectiveness – Actively listen to employees in order to make them happy. – Sensitive employee needs – Open to employees
Circuit Breakers – Poor climate – Misunderstanding – Hidden agendas
Accoutrements – Change initiation – Sources of innovation – Direction of communication Evaluation Understanding = Effective Comm. Connections – Feedback – Relationship issue Disconnections – Goals of comm. – Understanding = agreement
Model of circuit theory
Communications are achieved through an intricate combination of the practice, understanding, and intuition. It believes that the communication involves the coordination of meanings, the understanding of common rules, and the recognition of Patterns between two or more people.
– Communicators develop skills that are often unconscious.
– The beauty of communication is a function of the degree of coordination
Communication has multiple purposes.
– Communication involves coordinating meanings.
– Communication involves co-orientation.
– Communication is rule-governed.
– Communication has patterns
Explain the importance of effective communication for middle level Manager…
Communication skills are really one of the key competencies that are measured by organization, and it is essential part of any interpersonal relationship. Communication is much more then one is talking to another, it is how the people respond to each other in many different ways. The reaction to the message will be depending on the communication that we used to pass the message. So it is important to ensure we pass the message in decent manner and also it’s received by the correct person and reacting accordingly as we can save the time and money. Read about factors you should consider to understand the threat in your environment
Effective groups and teams are important to organizational successes as much organizational work is completed by groups and teams rather than individuals. In any work environment, the ability to express one’s opinion and feelings without disrupting their mood is fundamental to the long-term progress of the organization.
Unfortunately, many people are not trained to express themselves in a constructive and productive manner. Failing to do so would causes the most problems in an organization. The result w3ill be not only a lack of genuine communication between members of the team, but can put down the organization in the long run. It causes confusion and misunderstanding at best and it will lead to the oppressive of ideas and creativity, at worst it can lead to passive resistance and damage, and leads to plan failing. As a leader, the most important responsibility is to accomplish tasks and provide valuations.
You need to build and manage a high performing team to develop organization and achieve its goals. Therefore effective and good communications are extremely important. As Barrett (2005) points out that: “effective leadership depends on effective communication. It is through effective communication that leaders guide, direct, motivate and inspire. Without effective communication, a manager accomplishes little. Without effective communication, a manager is not an effective leader.” Moreover, Walters (2007) also states that: “for many executives, issues such as building a culture of ethics, social responsibility, and sustainability are paramount, along with traditional priorities of financial health, quality, productivity, and furthering of the company’s vision and values.
The realization of any and all of these issues relies upon a different level of attention to deliberate, strategic, and skilful communication.” This means that leaders are communicated to be, they must be able to share their knowledge and concepts, to transmit a sense of urgency and enthusiasm to others. Good communication involves both giving and receiving information. A well-functioning group works when members feel that their views are being heard and addressed. And a leader must communicate effectively to achieve this.