Diabetes – types, symptoms, prevention

Diabetes is a disease that a person possesses when he has high blood pressure. Diabetes is most common in adults; but can teenagers can also carry it. Diabetes is not a deadly disease but has to be controlled by a proper medication, nutrition and exercise. There are many associations (Canadian Diabetes Association) that provide medication to who are diagnosed and educate them and others. Around the world, there are some 285 million people who are affected by diabetes. Each year, about 7 million people get hit by diabetes. By 2030, about 438 million are to be affected by this disease. In Canada alone, there are over 9 million people who are diabetic and out of which 10% have Type 1 diabetes. These numbers are increasing dramatically.

A person has high glucose level mainly because of insulin. When insulin is not being produced or the quantity of it is low or our body doesn’t respond to insulin, we should expect high sugar level. After a meal, the food (carbohydrate) is converted into sugar (glucose) and proteins (amino acids). Glucose and amino acid is then sent to the bloodstream and this causes the sugar level to rise rapidly. This causes the Pancreas to start producing, called Beta Cells, which discharge insulin. When not enough insulin or no insulin is produced, the insulin is not able to make glucose and the amino acid get absorb in the blood. As a result, glucose remains in the bloodstream which causes high glucose level. Read about diabetic emergency

Types

Diabetes can be divided into four different types: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational Diabetes and pre-diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is most common in children. When no insulin is produced, the glucose doesn’t get used for energy but instead fills up the body. Sugar is the not the reason why the rate of insulin is decreased. In this type, sugar is not the cause but instead a virus that is sent by our own immune system. This is called autoimmune disease. This type of diabetes is common in children and under the age of 30. The most common symptoms for this type are: frequent urination, extreme hunger, weakness, etc. There is no treatment for this type yet.

About 90% of people who are diagnosed to diabetes have Type 2. Here, insulin is produced but the quantity is not that great and our body doesn’t respond to the insulin that is produced. The pancreas then eventually stops producing it. These happen in three steps: it begins with insulin resistance. Certain things within our body prevent the insulin from moving glucose. Eventually the pancreas becomes too weak to produce enough insulin. As a result, after a meal the rise in the glucose level increases dramatically. These activities then eventually damage the body of the person. Lastly, these continuous actions destroy beta cells and thereby no insulin is produced. The most common symptoms for this type are: weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue, etc. Obesity is the key that causes diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes occurs to women who are pregnant. When someone is pregnant, activities such as morning sickness, heartburn, exhaustion and the excitement of pregnancy have an effect on the body. These activities lead them to cause this particular diabetes. In this type of diabetes, the amount of insulin is insufficient to maintain the sugar level. Also, the studies have shown that in past years, the rate of Gestational Diabetes has increased by somewhat 10%. Some factors for example: obesity, maternal age, family history of diabetes, race/ethnicity, reflect the rate because of the current trends going on in our society.

The particular diabetes can have an effect on your baby. If Gestational Diabetes is not controlled properly, it will lead you to high glucose level and as a result, you will have a large baby. On the other hand, this type of diabetes will be vanished after the delivery. But there is a possibility that it can lead you to Type 2 diabetes.

The fourth type of diabetes is known as Prediabetes. As the name suggest, a person has a prediabetes when he has high glucose level but not enough to cause Type 2 diabetes. Most of the people with prediabetes, will end up with Type 2 Diabetes. The reason behind this is that, most of the people won’t know till the end if they have this type of diabetes. And that’s why, if this level of glucose remains in the body, it will be high enough for Type 2. So, the first step for you should be being tested once in a while.

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