Describe Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Social development for each of the life stages of individual
This begins when the fertilised egg cell start to divide, after two or more days the fertilised egg would have grown to the size of a pin head. After 8 weeks the foetus would have grown 3-4cm and the eyes, ears, mouth, arms and legs would have started developing. The development of the foetus will continue throughout the pregnancy.
When the baby is conceived the brain and the organs start to develop after seven or eight weeks. After four to five months the baby can begin recognising their mother’s voice and sounds they like and don’t like.
Babies begin developing emotional feelings after six months of being in the womb as they are able to recognise the mother’s voice and sounds from the outside of the body. The mother’s moods can affect the child’s emotional state whether she sad, happy or stressed as the child can sense her mood.
The child does not have many ways of socialising with others in the womb. The only way the child is able to socialise in the womb is if there’s more than one child i.e. twins, triples etc. where they can interact with one another in the womb. The foetus can also respond to touch, sound and the mother, this is also another way for a foetus to socialise from the inside.
Birth to infancy (0-3)
A new born needs breast milk as it’s easily digestible for the first weeks to help with growth. Babies have for different reflexes which as rooting reflex, this allows the new-born to turn their heads when touched. The grasping reflex gives babies the ability to hold your finger when placed in the palm. The startled reflex is when a new born is startled by a loud noise etc. they stretch their arms and legs. Babies develop the walking reflex when they have been put upright with their feet touching the ground, this will make them attempt movement. These reflexes prepare them for infancy. Once the child reaches infancy they become more aware of their surroundings as they try to interact with others. When they reach two years old their talking becomes clear and walking is easier.
From when a baby is born they have the ability to sense objects. Their reflexes help the motor actions which controls their muscles. At this stage the child’s thinking skills is at a limit as they can only perform the motor actions. Once the child reaches the age of one they are able to understand and interact with others, as they get older they get older between the ages of two to three their language skills improves giving them good communication skills.
Infants develop emotional feelings as they pick up positive and negative emotions from others. Babies enjoy smiling as they get familiar with family members and other individuals whereas at four months they are uncomfortable with people they don’t know. Infant’s emotions get triggered easily when their toys get confiscated. Infants build an emotionally attachment to their parents so when they’re not around they feel incomplete and this will also emotionally affect them. They also have temper tantrums, this happens when things don’t go the way they want it to.
Infants tent to interact with carers i.e. mother, father etc. from two months children are able to look and smile at others. At three months they are more aware when adults and others are talking, they are also able to tell from a familiar face to an unfamiliar face by five months. Infants make their first relationships with their parents or carers as they get emotionally attached. When infants get older they begin socialising with other children sure as playing and interacting.
Childhood (4-9 years)
During early childhood children grown steadily but not as quickly as infancy. At this stage they are more confident and capable to take part in activities such as playing ball games, throwing and catching balls. By the age of six a child’s head will grow 90 per cent of an adults head size. Also at the age of six/seven children develop how to use a bike etc.
In this age group children develop rapidly with their language skills. Their gain an increase of the use of grammar and vocabulary because they have a better understanding and I continues to develop as they get older. In early childhood children can count to 10 and onwards but not understand what the numbers mean, as they develop and grow they gain a better understanding. Children know how to communicate with others through language to get a point across or to explain a situation, they learning this as they grow and school increase their knowledge and understanding. At the age of seven children understand everything their thought and shown i.e. meaning of numbers, language skills etc.
Childhood is the stage where children begin to understand themselves and the others around them. At early childhood children understand the difference between right and wrong which leads to self-assessment which can affect their self-esteem. The relationship children have with their family and friends can influence their self-confidence, as child can either develop confidence or low self-esteem.
The first social learning stage is known as the primary socialisation. Young children are more dependent and attached to their parents/carers and family members as they see and interact with them everything day, children begin socialising with family members before anyone else this starts at the age of four and continues throughout childhood. They also develop an interactive and cooperative playing skill and this makes them more willing and happy to play with other children bother older and younger. From the age of seven to nine children will usually have a group of friends they interact and socialise with.
Adolescence (10-18 years)
Girls become physically mature as puberty often starts form the age of ten to thirteen whereas boys usually start puberty by the age of fifteen. Puberty prepares the body for sexual reproduction which start from hormones that control sexual development. For nine to ten girls start developing the growth of armpit, pubic and leg hair. They also have a rapid growth in height from the age nine to fifteen and slows down from fifteen to eighteen as they stop growing at eighteen years old. Girls begin developing breast properly between twelve and eighteen, after two years of developing girls tend to begin menstrual periods.
Boys develop growth and the penis starts to lengthen by the age of nine. By the age of seventeen the genital would have grown to the adult size. As this happens their voice changes also. Puberty starts when they begin having regular nocturnal emissions, wet dreams usually start between thirteen and seventeen. Boys take longer to develop as they finish growing at the age of twenty-one whereas girls stop growing at eighteen.
At early adolescence teenagers are usually able to think complexly in different situations such as school work whereas some find it difficult to put their complex thinking to work with their personal life this is because they are still developing. Teenagers fully develop the ability to use complex thinking within their school work and home environment and the capability to compare the different standards they agree and don’t agree with. They also start taking risks.
During adolescence teenagers change the way they interact with other i.e. family members, friend etc. moods are usually unpredictable as they can either be in a good or bad mood as the brain is still learning how to control emotions. As teenagers get older they are more able to notice when others are sad, happy, stress etc. as they are going through this stage they can sometimes miss read body language and facial expressions. They may also start having emotional feelings for the other sex at the last stage of adolescence.
Teenagers are usually still trying to figure out who they are and where they fit in with friends and their environment. Most young people seek independence and responsibility because they are motivated to provide for themselves. During this stage teenagers develop a high rate of socialising skills as they enjoy socialising with friends and new individuals. They do this by social networks and building social relationships.
Adult hood(19-65 years)
Many changes happen during adulthood. Young adults are usually have good physical condition e.g. more active flexible and outgoing etc. they are also more fertile until their early twenties. Older adults tend to lose strengths and speed as their physical condition decreases but taking part in exercise can help their physical condition. During the age of forty many individuals tend to wear classes and find it difficult hearing higher pitched sounds during late adulthood. Between the ages of forty to fifty-five, fertility reduces and menopause begins. Menopause is usually the end of having menstrual periods, an increase of hormones known as gonadotropins which stimulates egg production which usually caused hot flushes and sweating. Also a decent of sexual hormones (oestrogen and progesterone). Older adults also tend to gain weight because they still eat the same as when they were young adults.
Most young adults are usually still education whereas others may not be due to their own decisions. Depending if the individual is educated, they would buy into lifelong learning as they will continue learning new things until the death of them as they believe developing their intellectual skills are important, so their up to date with new changes. Whereas if an individual is not educated they build barriers to their intellectual learning by limiting themselves.
Young adult’s emotional stage is usually the same as the end of adolescence as individuals would have finished education and about to start the work force whereas their romantic relationships would have strengthened as it’s the period to quick change. Marriage, making of family can began occurring, this can change an individual’s emotional state as other begin to be involved this can start occurring during the beginning and middle of adulthood. Older adulthood is an emotional stage for adults as they come from being very able to not as able leaving them emotionally concerned. Lose of hair, teeth and strength etc. also has an emotional effect on older individuals. As they feel weak.
Young adults usually have active social lives and large social networks as they are still interact and socialise with their school, college and university friends whereas some older adults may no longer keep in contact with childhood friends. Depending on individuals for example if a person is not naturally involved with friends or social networks during their initial development it can affect their socialising skills as they get older. They will find it difficult to interact with others as they haven’t developed their socialising skills and mostly not willing to.
Older adulthood (65+)
At this age adults become more restless as they will be going through many physical changes. They will gain wrinkles and hair loss and also see more grey hairs. Elderly women would have already started menopause. By this stage they are more likely to get diabetes and other illness due to their age. The muscles elastin will begin to decrease and cell decay, the body system becomes less effective i.e. the lungs and heart works slower.
The brain is still able to adapt as usually even in old age. Some old people lack the ability to remember things because of the lack of mental exercise and stimulation. Anything they learn within this age group may be understood in a slower manor than usual and may need the communicator to repeat what their trying to communicate so they have more time to understand what has been said.
Older adulthood can affect individual’s emotional state because as they get older their brains are detiriorting day by day they may be healthy but there brain is telling them they are not. Social abilities can affect their emotional needs as they may feel vulnerable because of the state of their emotional needs. It is essential to ensure the care they receive is specified to each individual as they may have different emotional needs.
By this stage adults would have already retired from work. Older people have more time because they are retired from work so depending on their physical abilities their prospects for a social life may change with each individual some people are also mentally challenged and my not feel comfortable in a situation where socialising takes place.