Constitutional Amendments (1-27)
Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to bear arms a well
regulated miltia is neccessary to the security of a free country
Restricts quartering of troops in private homes.
No “unreasonable” searches and seizures without a warrant or probable cause that a search will produce evidence of a crime; Exclusionary Rule.
Right of Accused Persons/ Indictment of Grand Jury (1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda) (2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges) (3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without “due process of law” (fair treatment) (4) Eminent domain
The right to counsel in criminal trials (1) Speedy and public trial (2) Accused must be told charges essay writers world reviews (3) right to counsel (free lawyer if poor) (4) right to jury in criminal cases
Right to jury in civil trials.
Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail. Meaning of “cruel” based on “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.” Categorical bans on death penalty: juveniles, retarded, non-murder crimes…
Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not been developed by Supreme Court. Not everything can be written down.
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as “reserved powers amendment” or “states’ rights amendment`
One State cannot be sued by another state
federal courts from hearing cases lodged against a state
separation of votes for President and Vice President
Abolished slavery. First of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War (1865-70)
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War.
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 & 26)
Gives Congress the power of income tax
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
Prohibition of alcohol
States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender
Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th
Repeal of Prohibition
Limits the president to two terms.
Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress)
Abolishes poll taxes
(1) Succession of VP if president dies or become incapable to do his job. (2) if there is no VP, president must appoint one, and congress must approve
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
Congressional pay raises are not begin until the next election