Computers in Different Spheres of Lives

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A computer is an electronic device, which executes software programs. It consists of 2 parts-hardware and software. The computer processes data through input devices like mouse and keyboard. The computer displays output through output devices like color monitor and printer. The size of a computer varies considerably from very small to very big. The speed of computers also has a very large range. Computers have become indispensable in today’s world. Millions of people use computers all over the world.

Computers play a key role in almost every sphere of life. They facilitate storage of huge amounts of data, they enable speedy processing of information and they possess an inbuilt intelligence. Owing to these unique capabilities, computers function on levels close to that of a human brain. Computers can hence be employed in a wide variety of fields like engineering, data processing and storage, planning and scheduling, networking, education as well as health and medicine. You might want to take a look at the various uses of computers.

There are several uses of computers: Word processors A word processor (more formally known as document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material. Word processor may also refer to a type of stand-alone office machine, popular in the 1970s and 1980s, combining the keyboard text-entry and printing functions of an electric typewriter with a dedicated processor (like a computer processor) for the editing of text.

Although features and design varied between manufacturers and models, with new features added as technology advanced, word processors for several years usually featured a monochrome display and the ability to save documents on memory cards or diskettes. Later models introduced innovations such as spell-checking programs, increased formatting options, and dot-matrix printing. As the more versatile combination of a personal computer and separate printer became commonplace, most business-machine companies stopped manufacturing the word processor as a stand-alone office machine.

As of 2009 there were only two U. S. companies, Classic and AlphaSmart, which still made stand-alone word processors? Many older machines, however, remain in use. Word processors are descended from early text formatting tools (sometimes called text justification tools, from their only real capability). Word processing was one of the earliest applications for the personal computer in office productivity. Although early word processors used tag-based markup for document formatting, most modern word processors take advantage of a graphical user interface providing some form of What You See Is What You Get editing.

Most are powerful systems consisting of one or more programs that can produce any arbitrary combination of images, graphics and text, the latter handled with type-setting capability. Microsoft Word is the most widely used word processing software. Microsoft estimates that over 500,000,000 people use the Microsoft Office suite, which includes Word. Many other word processing applications exist, including WordPerfect (which dominated the market from the mid-1980s to early-1990s on computers running Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system) and open source applications OpenOffice. org Writer, AbiWord, KWord, and LyX. Web-based word processors, such as Google Docs, are a relatively new category. Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don’t have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. Internet It is a network of almost all the computers in the world.

You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet. Newspaper, book and other print publishing have to adapt to Web sites and blogging. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s with both private and United States military research into robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U. S. backbone by the National Science Foundation, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by then an international network in the mid 1990s resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life.

As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth’s population used the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Importance of Computers in Medicine Computers are the excellent means for storage of patient related data. Big hospitals employ computer systems to maintain patient records. It is often necessary to maintain detailed records of the medical history of patients.

Doctors often require the information about a patient’s family history, physical ailments, already diagnosed diseases and prescribed medicines. This information can be effectively stored in a computer database. Computers can keep track of prescriptions and billing information. They can be used to store the information about the medicines prescribed to a patient as well as those, which cannot be prescribed to him/her. Computers enable an efficient storage of huge amounts of medical data. Medicine comprises vast base of knowledge. Computer storage can serve as the best means of housing this information.

Medical journals, research and diagnosis papers, important medical documents and reference books can best be stored in an electronic format. The important use of computers in the medical field is for research and development. The high end machines used for diagnosis and cure of many diseases are nothing but computers. For example, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scan, ultrasound devices, etc are amongst the uses of computers in hospitals. Even many surgical procedures, known as laparoscopic surgeries, need the help of computers.

Many of the modern-day medical equipment have small, programmed computers. Many of the medical appliances of today work on pre-programmed instructions. The circuitry and logic in most of the medical equipment is basically a computer. The functioning of hospital-bed beeping systems, emergency alarm systems, X-ray machines and several such medical appliances is based on computer logic. Computer software is used for diagnosis of diseases. It can be used for the examination of internal organs of the body. Advanced computer-based systems are used to examine delicate organs of the body.

Some of the complex surgeries can be performed with the aid of computers. The different types of monitoring equipment in hospitals are often based on computer programming. Medical imaging is a vast field that deals with the techniques to create images of the human body for medical purposes. Many of the modern methods of scanning and imaging are largely based on the computer technology. We have been able to implement many of the advanced medical imaging techniques, thanks to the developments in computer science. Magnetic resonance imaging employs computer software.

Computed tomography makes use of digital geometry processing techniques to obtain 3D images. Sophisticated computers and infrared cameras are used for obtaining high-resolution images. Computers are widely used for the generation of 3-D images in medicine. Computer networking, in the field of medicine, allow for faster communication between a patient and a doctor. Doctors can collaborate better over the Internet. Web conferencing helps doctors treat people remotely. Today, it is possible to obtain experts’ opinions within seconds by means of the Internet.

Medical professionals sitting on opposite sides of the globe can communicate within minutes by means of the Internet. It is due to computer networking technology that network communication has become easy. Medical practitioners can discuss medical issues in medical forums. They can exchange images and messages in seconds and derive conclusions speedily. They can seek advice and share knowledge in a convenient manner over the Internet. Entertainment A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.

The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term “video game,” it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms.

For example, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick. Another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button. Many modern computer games allow, or even require, the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously. Video games typically also use other ways of providing interaction and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones.

Other feedback may come via haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback, with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback. Digital video or audio composition – Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers.

Music is a great chance to do your boring work a bit more interesting, all you need, is to turn on your favorite music, but it is too expensive to buy a lot of different audio cds, although, there is a solution, nowadays internet data storage server, can handle with millions and millions GBs of data. There is no doubt that you will find your favorite singer, and all that you need to do, is only download all his albums. One of the most popular entertainment devices is GPS navigation. GPS is a complex of software and hardware that connected to the satellite, and can show your current or location where you want to get.

You don’t have to take with different maps; this device contains all countries maps, and descriptions. Moreover, with GPS navigation system, you can seek for the persons, all you need, are internet access. With special software, you can see on your monitor location of person, whose GPS is turned on, it is very useful thing for tourists or for very caring parents A mobile phone (also called mobile, cellular telephone, cell phone or handphone) is an electronic device used for full duplex two-way radio telecommunications over a cellular network of base stations known as cell sites.

Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within limited range through a single base station attached to a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office. A mobile phone allows its user to make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator. A key feature of the cellular network is that it enables seamless telephone calls even when the user is moving around wide areas via a process known as handoff or handover.

In addition to being a telephone, modern mobile phones also support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS (or text) messages, email, Internet access, gaming, Bluetooth and infrared short range wireless communication, camera, MMS messaging, MP3 player, radio and GPS. Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, whereas high-end mobile phones that offer more advanced computing ability are referred to as smartphones. The first handheld cellular phone was demonstrated by Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kg (4. 4 lb).

In the year 1990, 12. million people worldwide had cellular subscriptions. By the end of 2009, only 20 years later, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide reached approximately 4. 6 billion, 370 times the 1990 number, penetrating the developing economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that refers to a range of connectivity technologies including wireless local area network (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802. 11 standards, device to device connectivity, and a range of technologies that support PAN, LAN and even Wide Area Network (WAN) connections.

IEEE 802. 1 has been used interchangeably with Wi-Fi, however Wi-Fi has become a superset of IEEE 802. 11 over the past few years. Wi-Fi is used by over 700 million people, there are over 750,000 hotspots (places with Wi-Fi internet connectivity) around the world, and about 800 million new Wi-Fi devices every year. Wi-Fi products that complete the Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification testing successfully can use the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED designation and trademark. Not every Wi-Fi device is submitted for certification to the Wi-Fi Alliance. The lack of Wi-Fi certification does not necessarily imply a device is incompatible with Wi-Fi devices.

Wi-Fi devices are installed in many personal computers, video game consoles, MP3 players, smartphones, printers, and other peripherals, and newer laptop computers. Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviors of a selected physical or abstract system. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games.

Training simulators include flight simulators for training aircraft pilots. Simulation is also used for scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.

Key issues in simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes. Computer in finance Mathematical finance is applied mathematics concerned with financial markets. The subject has a close relationship with the discipline of financial economics, which is concerned with much of the underlying theory. Generally, mathematical finance will derive, and extend, the mathematical or numerical models suggested by financial economics.

Thus, for example, while a financial economist might study the structural reasons why a company may have a certain share price, a financial mathematician may take the share price as a given, and attempt to use stochastic calculus to obtain the fair value of derivatives of the stock In terms of practice, mathematical finance also overlaps heavily with the field of computational finance (also known as financial engineering). Arguably, these are largely synonymous, although the latter focuses on application, while the former focuses on modeling and derivation.

The fundamental theorem of arbitrage-free pricing is one of the key theorems in mathematical finance. Many universities around the world now offer degree and research programs in mathematical finance; see Master of Mathematical Finance. Computational finance or financial engineering is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on computational intelligence, mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions.

Utilizing various methods, practitioners of computational finance aim to precisely determine the financial risk that certain financial instruments create. The banking sector has improved on fronts such as security, ease of use, etc. with the help of computers. Most of the banking operations can be done online, known as Internet banking, and you don’t have to walk up to the bank for virtually anything. You can withdraw money from ATMs and deposit money in any branch, thanks to the networking affected by the use of computers. The complete banking experience has also become safer.

Also read about the use of computers in business. Financial engineering is normally employed in the securities and banking industries. It is also used by quantitative analysts in consulting firms or in general manufacturing and service firms, in corporate treasury, corporate finance and risk management roles. Financial engineers will often hold doctorates in computer science or mathematics, although, increasingly, have instead completed a specialized (terminal) masters degree – usually the Master of Financial Engineering, or the more general Master of Quantitative Finance.

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