Coaching in multi sports
During Coaching Multi Sports arranged of sessions (see appendix 1) were run by arrange of coaches, from netball to rock climbing. There were many sessions also run by the students, but this assignment is going to focus on the sessions run by the coaches. This assignment is also going to focus my individual analysis, literature of the science behind coaching and reflection on my coaching development.
Coaching can be defined as, ‘Giving technical information in an organised manner to improve and develop a practical performance by individuals or groups.’ (Galligan et al, pg 322) This assignment will look at the various approaches to coaching and teaching. I will then describe and evaluate a coaching session that has been done, as well as looking at the styles and approaches. Purpose of coaching helping to develop a person through the improvement of their athletic performance. It involves the physical and psychological development of the person to take them beyond their present level.
2.0 Coaching styles
A coach will perform, and take up many roles, as coaching can be a lot more complex than many people believe. One role a coach does take up is to be an instructor. This is a fairly obvious role, but it is essential it is done correctly in order for the players being instructed to learn. Coaching is about teaching and training the mind as well as the body, but not every coach has the same style of coaching. Coaches will have their own preferred style or manner of coaching. This will revolve around their personality, temperament, their philosophy towards the game, the players age and ability levels.
A Coaching style can be defined as ‘the general pattern of learning, created by using a particular set of strategies’ (Siedentop, 1991). Coaches adopt different styles depending on certain session factors. According to Martens (1997) there are three types of coaching styles and that coach’s lean towards one of the styles. The command style which is known as the Autocratic, this style is that the athlete does everything the coach says, this style was used by trampoline coach the reason they use this style is mainly used because of health and safety, to prevent injuries and performers being silly on the trampoline.
The Submissive Style, also known as laissez-fair this is for coaches who cannot really be bothered and leave it up to the athletes, I have never experienced this style before. The final style is the cooperative style also known as democratic, this style the coach shares everything with the athlete and ask them their opinion on how the can solve a situation or any other problem. This style was used by the basketball coach he asked us has performers how we can solve a problem such as how to get past a defender. There is no definite way to coach, most coaches have their own way of coaching and chose to coach their way instead of coping someone else style. How a coach coaches depends on how their experiences and how they put them into action (Anderson and Anderson 2005) this is another reason why coaches coach different as no coach has had the same experience has another.
3.0 Evaluate techniques, strategies and theories used
In trampolining (see appendix one) the coach made the students feel very comfortable when performing on the trampoline that if they did a technique incorrect that the coach would be there to correct the technique. With a trampoline I think a coach should demonstrate the skills and technique more because for health and safety purposes the students should know what they are doing on the trampoline before going on one. (Bailes and Days 2001)
In the Basketball session, (see appendix two) you could see the coach enjoyed what he did, you good see this through his coaching and session; it was very interesting and entertaining and kept everyone interested. According to Hagger, Chatzisarantis (2007) motivation influences the quantity of behaviour, but also the quality of the experience of motivated behaviour. The coach was very motivated to do the session and because of this it influenced the participants to join in.
Rock climbing (session see appendix three) was a very interesting session as not many of the students have had the chance to participate in this before. With this session the coach to develop a trust relationship with the participations to ensure that they have 100% faith in the coach when on the wall if they fall the coach will prevent them from hitting the ground. The coach needs to be autocratic when coaching to prevent participants being silly on the wall and causing problems for other climbers. This also links into Maslow hierarchy of needs (1954),
Safety/security keeping students out of danger, such as checking knots ensuring all harnesses are on correct and then next one was esteem being competent, motivating students because rock climbing can have a physiological affect on climbers they may have a fear of heights whilst on the wall. Motivation is a psychological concept related to strength and direction of human behavior Robertson and Smith (1985). Only motivated coaches can produce motivated learners Csikszentihali (1997).
Netball session (see appendix four) this session was planned well and progressed in a steady flow. Not many participants kept an interest in this sport mainly the male participants this is because of their experience they have mainly seen females taking part in this sport. According Mosston and Ashworth (1986) if a coaching session or a sport hasn’t been a positive experience they prevent themselves from going back into that situation. This will be one of the reasons why male participants don’t like to participate in netball as they have always seen females participants playing the sport. As it were some of the males first time the coach had to show them the fundamental stage of netball. This stage is learning all the basic movements in sport in a fun way and to have a good experience (Foreman and Bradshaw 2009)
During the year we had many football session (see appendix five and six) all the football session we well presented and organised, for these session everyone in the group we all interested in football as most of the group take part in football outside of university. Coaching style for football was mainly democratic and ask the participants opinion a lot and asked question at the end of each session.
4.0 Reflect on what I have learnt
According to Boud et al reflection is a big part of human activity in we look back on our experiences in which we think about it and evaluate it and is important to the learning process. After watching various coaching sessions and tacking in how they present their selves and how the project when giving instructions, I have found myself being a better which also showed during my work experience. I was being able to coach the children I was working with, confidently and without needing any help or anyone’s approval for my session plan. I have also learnt from the tutor of the subject to always have a backup plan when coaching in case something does not got to plan which is known as a contingency plan.
Contingency plan assess the needs and requirements so that you may be prepared to respond is something is not going to plan (Lee 1993). Have a second plan helps any coach because if a drill doesn’t run correctly have a second plan gives you the chance to correct it quickly without disrupting the rest of the session. When running a session the best chance to coach a technique is to bring one coaching tip at a time (Hughes and Franks 2008). This is a good coaching point when coaching children it prevents them from becoming confused and frustrated. Feedback is also very important in development as a coach and a performer (Hughes and Franks 2008). But as a coach we need to ensure we are not to critical and never end the feedback on a negative.
5.0 What skills do you believe coaches need to work effectively
To be a successful coach you have to take account Planning and organisation. “If they want to get the best from a coaching session it is essential that you are well organised”. (Bompa & Carrera, 2005.) Before starting coaching, a session plan should be made out. This allows us to run a session in a professional and organised manner. The session plan should get progressively more difficult, not suddenly jump from relatively simple to hard with no stages in between. When coaching one of responsibilities of a coach is the safety of the people around them. Before each coaching session takes place a health and safety check should be the first aspect of a coach’s activity. This involves checking the safety of the facilities being used.
The coach can do this effectively by walking around the playing area in order to check for areas of damage, holes in the surface, discarded glass or rubbish, damp or wet areas and any other potentially dangerous hazards. If the facility is inside the walls, lights, windows and roof should all be inspected. Checking the safety of the participants would be the next job for the coach. This involves basic skills from the coach just to be sure those participants are not at harm from each other or themselves. The most important quality you need as a coach is enthusiasm. People respond brilliantly to an eager, hard working leader. (BBC Sports News 2010). If sports coaches are enthusiastic it makes the participants eager to join in with the sport sessions.
The role of a sports coach is to create the right conditions for learning to happen and to also find ways to motivate the athletes. “Most athletes are already highly motivated and therefore the task is to maintain that motivation and make the training sessions exciting and enthusiastic.” (Peltier, B 2010). Coaches must require knowledge and the understanding of the sport as well as the variety of styles, skills and techniques that are appropriate to the sport in which the coaching takes place.
Coaches are there to help their participants in a variety of different ways to perform at their highest level. “A coach has different roles that aid the development within performers and these can be educate or train, such as educating them with specific skills and to train them to an effective standard”. (Cook 1999). The role of a coach is to assist athletes to develop their full potential within their sport. The coach is responsible for taking the training sessions also they should analyze their athlete’s performances; they should teach the relevant skills provide encouragement. They are also responsible for the guidance of the athlete/group in their chosen sport. The coach is the person who tells you what you are doing incorrect but more essentially how to improve it. A coach will help their team or individuals in all aspects of their sport
The role of the coach can be varied, from instructor, assessor, friend, mentor, facilitator, demonstrator, adviser, supporter, fact finder, motivator, organizer, planner and the Fountain of all Knowledge. The role of a sports coach is to create the right conditions for learning to happen and to also find ways to motivate the athletes. Most athletes are already highly motivated and therefore the task is to maintain that motivation and make the training sessions exciting and enthusiastic.. Watching a different range of coaching practices help you learn different sessions and different coaching style which can help you with ideas for any future sessions you may what to run. There is no correct way to coach many factors come into what makes a good coach and a competent coach has many qualities and should be able to cater for the individual needs of people in the session
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