Chapters 1-4

-ac, -iac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ior, -ouspertaining to
-algiapain
-blastembryonic, immature

-celehernia
-centesissurgical puncture to remove fluid
-coccus (plural -cocci)berry-shaped bacterium (plural: bacteria)
-crineto secrete (suffix)
-cyesispregnancy
-cytecell
-drometo run (suffix)
-dyniapain
-ectomyexcision, removal, resection
-emiablood condition
-erone who (suffix)
-fusioncoming together; to pour
-gensubstance that produces
-genesiscondition of producing, forming
-genicpertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in
-globinprotein (suffix)
-gramrecord
-graphinstrument for recording
-graphyprocess of recording
-iacondition
-ionprocess
-ismprocess, condition
-istspecialist (suffix)
-itisinflammation
-lapseto slide, fall, sag
-logyprocess of study
-lysisbreakdown, destruction, separation
-malaciasoftening
-megalyenlargement
-meterto measure
-missionto send
-oidresembling
-olelittle, small (suffix)
-omatumor, mass, collection of fluid
-opsyprocess of viewing
-orone who
-osepertaining to, full of
-osiscondition, usually abnormal (slight increase in numbers when used with blood cells)
-partumbirth, labor
-pathydisease condition
-peniadeficiency (suffix)
-phobiafear
-phoriato bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
-physisto grow
-plasiadevelopment, formation, growth
-plasmstructure or formation (suffix)
-plastysurgical repair
-pneabreathing
-ptosisfalling, dropping, prolapse (suffix)
-rrheaflow, discharge
-sclerosishardening
-scopeinstrument for visual examination
-scopyprocess of visual examination (with an scope)
-sisstate of; condition
-somesbodies
-stasisstopping, controlling
-stasisstopping, controlling
-stomyopening to form a mouth (stoma) (suffix)
-therapytreatment
-ticpertaining to
-tomyprocess of cutting, incision (suffix)
-trophydevelopment, nourishment
-typepicture, classification
-ulelittle, small (suffix)
-um, -iumstructure, tissue (2 suffix)
-usstructure, substance
-ycondition, process
-yprocess, condition
a-, an-no, not, without
ab-away from (prefix)
abdomin/oabdomen
abdomin/oabdomen
abdominal cavityspace below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; aka abdomen
abscessa collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection
achondroplasiaan inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size because of a defect in cartilage and bone
acr/oextremities,top,extreme (root)
acromegalyan endocrine disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty.
ad-toward
aden/ogland
adenoidssmall masses of lymphatic tissue in the part of the pharynx near the nose and nasal passages.
adip/ofat
adipose tissuecollection of fat cells
adrenal glandsendocrine glands located above each kidney . They secrete chemicals that effect the bodys functioning.
agranulocytes (mononuclear leukocytes)have one large nucleus and only a few granules in their cytoplasm. Produced in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen.
amni/oamnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)
amniocentesisthe withdrawal of fluid that accumulates in the amnion
amnionthe sac that surrounds the embryo in the uterus
ana-up, apart
anabolismprocess of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
anemia“no blood”, a condition of reduction in the number of erythrocytes or in the amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood.
angi/ovessel
ante-before, forward
anter/ofront (root)
anterior (ventral)front surface of the body
anti-against
antibodiesprotein substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign antigens
antigena foreign substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
aplastic anemiaa severe type of anemia that occurs when bone marrow fails to produce not only erythrocytes but leukocytes and thrombocytes as well
arteri/oartery
arthr/ojoint
aut-, auto-self, own (2 prefix)
autoimmune diseasethe body makes antibodies against its own good cells and tissues, causing inflammation and injury
axill/oarmpit (root)
basophilsgranulocytes that stains blue with basic stain. Their function is not clear but the number of these cells increases in the healing phase of inflammation
bi-two
bi/olife
bilirubina chemical pigment
blephar/oeyelid
bol/oto cast (throw)
brady-slow
bronch/obronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left, that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs)
capillariesthe tiniest of blood vessels
carcin/ocancerous, cancer
cardi/oheart
carp/owrist bones (root)
cartilageflexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
cata-break down (prefix)
catabolismprocess of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
cell membranestructure surrounding and protecting the cell. Determines what enters and leaves the cell
cephal/ohead
cerebr/ocerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cervic/oneck (of the body or of the uterus) (root)
cervicalneck region (C1 to C7)
chem/odrug, chemical
chondr/ocartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/ocolor
chromosomesrod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes
chron/ocartilage
chron/otime
cib/omeals
cis/oto cut
coccyg/ococcyx (tailbone)
coccygealregion of the coccyx (tailbone)
col/ocolon (large intestine)
con-with, together
congenital anomaliesan irregularity in a structure or organ such as webbed fingers or toes and heart defects
contra-against, opposite
contralateralopposite side
cost/orib
crani/oskull
cranial cavityspace in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull; cranial- pertaining to the skull
crin/oto secrete (to form and give off) (root)
cutane/oskin (root)
cyst/ourinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)
cystoceleoccurs when part of the urinary bladder herniates through the vaginal wall as a result of weakness of the pelvic muscles
cyt/ocell
cytoplasmall the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
dactyl/ofingers, toes
de-down, lack of (prefix)
deepaway from the surface
derm/oskin
dermat/oskin (root)
dia-through, complete
diaphragmmuscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
diplococciberry-shaped bacteria organized in pairs
disk (disc)pad of cartilage between vertebrae
dist/ofar, distant (root)
distalfar from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
DNAchemical found within each chromosome. Directs the activities of the cell
dors/oback portion of the body (root)
dorsal (posterior)pertaining to the back
duct/oto lead, carry
dys-bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
ec-, ecto-out, outside (2 suffixes)
echocardiogramsultrasound images of the heart
ectopic pregnancya pregnancy where the zygote develops outside the uterus, usually within the fallopian tube
electr/oelectricity
en-, endo-in, within (2 prefixes)
encephal/obrain
end-, endo-within (2 prefix)
Endoplasmic ReticulumStructure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.
enter/ointestines (usually the small intestine)
eosinophilsgranulocyte that stains red with acidic stain. They are active and increased in number in allergic conditions such as asthma.
epi-above, upon
epi-upon, on, above (prefix)
epigastricmiddle upper region above the stomach
epithelial cellsskin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
erythr/ored
erythrocytesred blood cells which are made in the bone marrow and carry oxygen from the lungs through the blood to all body cells. Body cells use oxygen to burn food and release energy.
eu-good, normal
ex-, exo-out, outside of, outward (2 prefix)
fetal alcohol syndromeaffects infants whose mothers consumed excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy; characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency
flex/oto bend
frontal (coronal) planevertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
furc/oforking, branching
gastr/ostomach
genesregions of DNA within each chromosome
gloss/otongue
glyc/osugar
gnos/oknowledge
gonococcidiplococci that invades the reproductive organs causing gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease
granulocytespolymorphonuclear cells formed in the bone marrow, contain dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm and have a multilobed nucleus.
Graves diseaseautoimmune disease that causes hyperthyroidism
gynec/owoman, female
hem/oblood
hem/oblood (root)
hemat/oblood (root)
hemi-half
hemoglobinan important protein in erythrocytes that carries the oxygen through the bloodstream
hepat/oliver
hepat/oliver
herniaa protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it
hiatal herniaoccurs when the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum though the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
hist/otissue
histologistspecialist in the study of tissues
hydr/owater, fluid
hyper-excessive, above, more than normal
hypo-deficient, below, under, less than normal
hypochondriacright and left upper regions beneath the ribs
hypogastricmiddle lower region below the umbilical region
iatr/otreatment, physician
ili/oilium (part of the pelvic bone)
immun/oprotection
immune responsethe reaction between an antigen and antibody
in-into, within, not (1 prefix)
inferior (caudal)below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
infra-beneath, under
inguin/ogroin
inguinalright and left lower regions near the groin. Aka iliac regions
inguinal herniaoccurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male
inter-between
intra-in, within, into
ipsilateralsame side
isch/oto hold back
ischemia“to hold back blood from a part of the body”
jaundiceyellow skin pigmentation
kary/onucleus (root…k)
karyotypePicture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure
lapar/oabdomen,abdominal wall
laparoscopy (peritoneoscopy)visual examination of the abdominal cavity using a laparoscope
laryng/olarynx (voice box)
larynxvoice box, located at the upper part of the trachea
later/oside (root)
lateralpertaining to the side
leuk/owhite
LLQleft lower quadrant
log/ostudy of
lumb/olower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis) (root)
lumbarright and left middle regions near the waist, loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
LUQleft upper quadrant
lymph/olymph, a clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces, is contained in special lymph vessels and node throughout the body
lymphocyteslymph cells, agranulocytes that fight disease by producing antibodies, thereby destroying foreign cells.
macro-large
macrophagelarge phagocytes that are formed from monocytes when they leave the bloodstream and enter tissues
mal-bad
mamm/obreast
marfan syndromean inherited connective tissue disorder marked by a tall, thin body type with long, “spidery” fingers and toes, elongated head, and heart, blood vessel, and opthalmic abnormalities
mast/obreast
medi/omiddle (root)
medialpertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
mediastinumcentrally located space between the lungs
meta-beyond, change (prefix)
metabolismthe total of the chemical processes in a cell.
micro-small
mitochondriastructures in the cytoplasm in which energy is synthesized
monocytesagranulocytes that engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells.
morph/oshape, form (root)
mort/odeath
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)affects the skin, causing “boils” an abscesses
muc/omucus
my/omuscle
myel/ospinal cord, bone marrow
nat/ibirth
necr/odeath (of cells or whole body)
nect/oto bind, tie, connect
neo-new
nephr/okidney
neur/onerve
neutr/oneutrophil (a white blood cell) (root)
neutrophilsgranulocyte that stains a pale purple with neutral stain.They are phagocytes and are the most numerous disease-fighting soldiers referred to as polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
norm/orule, order
nucle/onucleus (root)
nucleuscontrol center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
omphalocelea herniation of the intestines through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the navel occurring in infants at birth
onc/otumor
ophthalm/oeye
oste/obone
oste/obone
ot/oear
ox/ooxygen
pan-all
para-abnormal, beside, near (prefix)
parasitismoccurs when one organism benefits and the other does not
path/odisease
ped/ochild
pelv/ipelvis, hip region (root)
pelvic cavityspace below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
per-through
peri-surrounding, around
peritone/operitoneum
peritoneumdouble-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
phag/oto eat, swallow
phagocytesengulf and digest bacteria
pharynxThroat, serves as the common passageway for food and air
phleb/ovein
pituitary glandendocrine gland at the base of the brain
plas/oformation, development
pleur/opleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall)
pleuradouble-layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavityspace between pleural cavity
pneumococcidiplococci that causes bacterial pneumonia
pneumon/olungs
poly-many, much
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)a method of producing multiple copies of a single gene, which is an important tool in recombinant DNA technology
post-after, behind
poster/oback, behind (root)
posterior ( dorsal)back surface of the body
pre-before, in front of
pro-before, forward
prolapsesan organ or tissue slides forward or downward
pronelying on the belly (face down, palms down)
proxim/onearest (root)
proximalnear the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
pseudo-false
psych/omind
pub/opubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone
pubic symphysisthe area in which the pubic bones of the pelvis have grown together
pulmon/olungs
radi/ox-rays
re-back, backward, again
Recombinant DNA technologythe process of taking a gene from on organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism
rect/orectum
rectocelethe protrusion of a portion of the rectum toward the vagina
ren/okidney
retro-behind, backward
Reye syndromecharacterized by vomiting, swelling of the brain, increased intracranial pressure, hypoglycemia, and dysfunction of the liver
rheumatoid arthritisautoimmune disease that affects joints
rhin/onose
RLQright lower quadrant
RUQright upper quadrant
sacr/osacrum
sacralregion of the sacrum (S1 to S5)
sagittal (lateral) planelengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
sarc/oflesh
sect/oto cut
seps/oinfection
somn/osleep
son/osound
sonogramultrasound images of a fetus
spin/ospine, backbone (root)
spinal cavityspace within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord; aka spinal canal
spinal columnbone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal cordnervous tissue within the spinal cavity
splen/ospleen
splenomegalyoccurs with development of high blood pressure in hepatic veins and hemolytic blood diseases
staphyl/oclusters
staphylococciberry-shaped bacteria that grows in small clusters, like grapes
strept/otwisted chains
streptococcusa berry-shaped bacterium that grows in twisted chains
sub-below, under
superficialon the surface
superior (cephalic)above another structure; pertaining to the head
supinelying on the back (face up, palms up)
supra-above, upper
symphysisa joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a layer of fibrocartilage
syn-, sym-together, with
syndactylya congenital anomaly marked by fusion of fingers or toes
syndromea group of signs or symptoms that appear together to produce a typical clinical picture of a disease of inherited abnormality
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)autoimmune disease that affects connective tissue, skin, and internal organs
tachy-fast
the/oto put, place
thel/onipple
thorac/ochest
thoracicchest region (T1 to T12)
thoracic cavityspace in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
thromb/oclot, clotting
thrombocytes (platelets)type of blood cell, tiny fragments of cells formed in the bone marrow and necessary for blood clotting
thyr/othyroid gland; shield (the shape of the thyroid gland resembled [-oid] a shield to those who named it)
thyroid glandendocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
tonsil/otonsils
tonsillitisinflammation and infection of the tonsils
top/oplace, position, location
tox/opoison
trache/otrachea (windpipe)
tracheawindpipe
tracheostomyan opening into the trachea through which an indwelling tube is inserted. The tube allows air to flow into the lungs or to help remove secretions from the bronchial tubes.
tracheotomyan incision into the trachea to open it below a blockage. May be performed to remove a foreign body or to obtain a biopsy specimen.
trans-across through (prefix)
transurethral resection of the prostate glanda portion of the prostate gland is removed with an instrument passed through the urethra
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) planehorizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
ultra-beyond, excess
ultrasonographya diagnostic technique using ultrasound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ or tissue
umbilic/onavel, umbilicus
umbilicalcentral region near the navel
uni-one
ur/ourinary tract, urine
ureterone of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
urethr/ourethra
urethratube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
uterusthe womb, the organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops
vaccinedead or weakened antigens that stimulate white blood cells to make antibodies
ven/ovein
ventr/obelly side of the body (root)
ventral (anterior)pertaining to the front
venulessmall veins
vertebr/overtebra(e), backbone(s)
vertebrasingle backbone
vertebraebackbones
viscer/ointernal organs
viscerainternal organs
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