***Chapter 10 THE HEART Vocabulary***
Angiograman X-ray representation of blood vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance
Angioplastyan operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
Anoxialack of oxygen
Aortalargest artery in the body
Aortic Stenosisabnormal narrowing of the aortic valve
ArrhythmiaSymptom of Cardiovascular disease, irregular heartbeat
Arterial anastomosissurgical connection between two arteries
Arteriographyprocess of recording (x-ray) arteries after injecting contrast material
Arteriosclerosis-hardening of the arteries
Arterylargest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.
Atherectomysurgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
Atheromafatty deposit or plaque within the arterial wall
Atherosclerosiscondition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
Atrial-pertaining to the atrium
Atrioventricular Bundle (bundle of His )Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting impulses between them. His is pronounced hiss.
atrioventricular nodeSpecialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker SA node through the AV node and atrioventricular bundle or (bundle of His) toward the ventricles.
Atrium; atriaone of two upper chambers of the heart
Brachial Arterythe major artery of the upper arm
Bradycardiaabnormally slow heartbeat
Bundle of Hisa bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
capillarySmallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
Carbon Dioxide(CO2)Gas (waste) released by the body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.Cardiogenic Shock-shock that results from failure of the heart in its pumping action.
Cardiomegalyenlargement of the heart
Cardiomyopathydisease of the heart muscle, Disease of the heart muscle that leads to generalized deterioration of the muscle and its pumping ability
Coronary Arteriesblood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
Cryanosisblueness of the skin due to a deficiency of oxygen in the blood
Deoxygenated Bloodblood that is oxygen poor
DiastoleRelaxation phase of the heartbeat (Greek diastole, dilation).
Electrocardiogramrecord of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
Endocardiuminner lining of the heart
Endotheliuminnermost lining of blood vessels
HypercholesterolemiaAn excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
HypoxiaDeficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
Interventricular Septumpartition between right and left ventricle, separates the two ventricles.
Mitral valvevalve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
Mitral ValvulitisInflammation of the mitral valve
Murmur–abnormal heart sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves…
Myocardium-Muscular, middle layer of the heart
Myxomabenign tumor derived from connective tissue, with cells embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue. These rare tumors occur most frequently in the left atrium.
Normal Sinus Rhythm-Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
OxygenGas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
Pacemaker-is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest An artificial cardiac pacemaker to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
Pacemaker(sinoatrial node)specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat.
Parietal Pericardiumoutside layer of the pericardium, or tough outer layer that forms a fibrous sac that surrounds and protects the heart.
Pericardiocentesissurgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart in order to remove fluid.
PericardiumDouble-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
Phlebotomyincision of a vein
Pulmonary Arteryartery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary Circulation-flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
Pulmonary Valvevalve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
Pulmonary Veinone of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Pulsebeat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum; Septa-Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)pacemaker of the heart
sphygmomanometerinstrument to measure blood pressure
Stethoscopea medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
Systemic Circulationflow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues.
systolecontraction phase of the heartbeat. (Greek systole, a contracting).
Tachycardiaabnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
Thrombolysisbreakdown (destruction) of a blood clot
Thrombophlebitisinflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
Tricuspid Valvelocated between the right atrium and right ventricle; has three (tri) leaflets, or cusps.
Valve-structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
Valvotomyincision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
Valvuloplastysurgical repair of a heart valve
Vascularpertaining to a blood vessel
Vasoconstrictionnarrowing of a blood vessel
Vasodilation-dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries
Veinthin walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back toward the heart. Vein contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.
Vena Cava; Vanae CavaeLargest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Venipuncturepuncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion.
Venouspertaining to a vein
Ventricleone of two lower chambers of the heart
Visceral Pericardium-This is the thin, inner layer of the pericardial sac that closely adheres to the heart.
Aneurysm/o– aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
Angi/o– vessel (blood)
Aort/o– aorta (largest artery)
Arter/o, Arteri/o– artery
Ather/o– plaque (fatty substance)
Atri/o– atrium (upper heart chamber)
Isch/o– hold back;back
Ven/o, Ven/i– vein
Ventricul/oventricle,lower heart chamber
Suffixes And Meaning…
-dilationwidening; stretching; expanding
-graphyprocess of recording
-lysisbreakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-omatumor; mass; fluid collection
-osiscondition, usually abnormal
-tomyprocess of cutting
Prefixes And Meaning…
a-, an-no, not
de-lack of; down; less; removal of
dys-bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
endo-in; within (MS. Jones I had a extra line under endo, but there wasnt a word listed under).
hypo-deficient, less than, below
ACE Inhibitor-Angiotensin-converting enzyme Inhibitor. Lower the production of angiotensin II, therefore relaxing arterial muscles enlarging the arteries
Acute Coronary Syndromesunstable angina and myocardial infarction which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries
Aneurysmlocal widening of an arterial wall
Anginais chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion
AngiographyX-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
Angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor- antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and thus dialates blood vessels. It prevents heart attacks, CHF stroke and death.
Arrhythmiasabnormal heart rhythms.
Atrioventricular Blockrecurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
Atrial fibrillationrapid, random, ineffective contractions of the atrium
AuscultationListening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
Beta Blockersdrugs used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrythmias. They block the action of epinenephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeart and reducing the workload of the heart.
Biventricular Pacemakerdevice enabling ventricles to beat together so that more blood is pumped out of the heart.
BNP Test-measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood
Bradycardia and Heart Blockfailure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle ( bundle of his)
Bruitan abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.Calcium Channel Blockers drugs used to treat angina and hypertension. They dilate blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
Cardiac Arrestsudden, unexpected stopping of heart action; sudden cardiac death
Cardiac Catheterizationthin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
Cardiac MRIimages of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field
Cardiac BiomarkersChemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
Cardiac Tamponadepressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
Cardioversionelectric shock to the heart to restore normal rhythm
Cardioversion (defibrillation)restoration of a normal heart rhythm by electric shock
Catheter Ablationbrief delivery of radio frequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias
Claudicationpain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
Coarctation of the Aortanarrowing of the aorta
Computed tomography angiography (CTA)three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (CT) (64-slice CT scanner)
Congenital Heart Diseaseabnormalities in the heart at birth
Congestive Heart Failurethe heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood
Coronary Artery Diseasedisease of the arteries surrounding the heart
Coronary Artery bypass grafting (CABG)arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages
Deep Vein Thrombosisa blood clot forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb
Defibrillationbrief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation)
Digoxina drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
Doppler Ultrasoundstudies sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels
Echocardiography (ECHO)echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart
Electrocardiography (ECG)recording of electricity flowing through the heartelectron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)
Electron Beams and Computed Tomographyearly CAD identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose
Embolus; Embolia clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
Endarterectomysurgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery
Endocarditisinflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria
Extracorporeal Circulationheart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired
Fibrillationrapid, random and ineffective contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute).
Flutter –rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria
Heart Transplantationa donor heart is transferred to a recipient
HemorrhoidsSwollen, painful rectal veins; often a result of constipation
Holter MonitoringanAn ECG device is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias.
Hypertension-high blood pressure
Hypertensive Heart DiseaseA high blood pressure affecting the heart
Hypertrophy of the right ventriclemyocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery
Implantable Cardioverter- Defibrillator-small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmias and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm
Infarction-area of dead tissue
Ischemiacondition in which blood flow to tissues is temporarily slowed or stopped
Left Ventricular Assist DeviceBooster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle.
Lipid testsmeasurements of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood
Lipoprotein electrophoresislipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample
Mitral Stenosisnarrowing of the mitral valve opening usually caused by scarring from rheumatic fever
Mitral Valve Prolapseimproper closure of the mitral valve
Murmuran extra heart sound, heard between normal beats
Myocardial InfarctionA heart attack.
Nitratesdrugs used to treat angina. They dilate the blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
Nitroglycerin-a nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
Occulsionclosure of a blood vessel
Palpitationsuncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
Patent Ductus Arteriosusa duct (ductus arteriosus) between aorta and pulmonary artery which normally closes soon after birth, remains open.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place
Pericardial Friction RubScraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
Pericarditisinflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
Peripheral Arterial Diseaseblockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys and other organs
PeripheralVascular Diseaseblockage of blood vessels outside the heart
Petechiaesmall, pinpoint hemorrhages
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)scan images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose
Pulmonary Artery Stenosispulmonary artery is narrow or obstructed
Raynaud Diseaserecurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes
Rheumatic heart diseaseheart disease caused by rheumatic fever.
Septal Defectssmall holes in the septa between the atria or the ventricles
Serum Enzyme Testschemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
Shift of the Aorta to the Rightaorta overrides the interventricular septum. oxygen-poor blood passes from the right ventricle to the aorta.
Statinsdrugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Stress Testexercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the hearts response to physical exertion (stress)
TelemetryContinuous monitoring of a patients heart rhythm in a hospital. (Electronic Trasmission of Data -tele/o meams distant)
Tetralogy of Fallota congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects
Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scantechnetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning.
Thallium 201 scanconcentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle.
ThrillVibration felt on touching the body over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)
Thrombolytic Therapy-drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis
Thrombotic Occlusion-the blocking of an artery by a thrombus
Varicose Veinsabnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occuring in the legs
Vegatationsclumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on the endocardium in conditions such as bacterial endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.
Ventricular septal defect-large hole between two ventricles lets venous blood pass from the right to the left ventricle and out to the aorta without oxygenation