Changing Nature of Human Resource Management
Changing Nature of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Challenges It appears that the most prevalent challenges facing HER management are as follows: * Economic and technological change * Occupational shifts The fastest-growing occupations percentages are related to information technology or health care. The increase in the technology Jobs is due to the rapid increase in the use of information technology, such as databases, system design and analysis, and desktop publishing.
Global Competition Due to the increase in information technology, global linkages are now more extensive and production and transportation can be coordinated worldwide. Therefore, the loss of manufacturing Jobs in the United States has been replaced with Jobs in information technology, financial services, health care, and retail services. * Workforce availability and quality concerns * Workforce quality deficit There is a growing gap between the knowledge and skills required by many Jobs and those possessed by employees and applicants.
Several different studies and rejections all point to the likelihood that employers in many industries will have difficulties obtaining sufficiently educated and trained workers. To address the skills deficiencies, HER management must do the following: * Assess more accurately the knowledge and skills of existing employees. * Make training for future Jobs and skills available for employees at all levels. * Increase the usage of new training methods, such as interactive videos. Become active partners with public school systems to aid in upgrading the knowledge and skills of high school graduates. Growth in contingent workforce The company sees using contingent employees as a way to stabilize the workforce. Instead of hiring regular workers when work piles up and then firing them when the work is finished, the company relies more on temporary workers and independent contractors. Productivity is measured in output per hour.
Another reason for the growth in contingent workers is the reduced legal liability faced by employers. * Demographics and diversity issues * Racial/ ethnic diversity HER professionals must ensure that diverse groups are managed and treated equitably in organizations. Also, HER professionals will have to develop diversity- oriented training so that all employees, regardless of background and heritage, can succeed in workplaces free from discrimination and inappropriate behaviors.
It also means Tanat more attention wall nave to De given to recruiting, satang, Ana promoting individuals without regard to their racial/ethnic heritage, so that equal employment results for all. * Aging of the workforce HER professionals will continue to face significant staffing difficulties. Efforts to attract older workers through the use of part-time and flexible staffing will increase. Also, as ore older workers with a lifetime of experience and skills retire, HER will face significant challenges in replacing them with workers having the capabilities and work ethic that characterize many older workers. Balancing work and family The decline of the traditional family and the increasing numbers of dual career couples and working single parents place more stress on employees to balance family and work. Organizations that do get employees to relocate often must offer employment assistance for spouses. Additionally, balancing work and family concerns has particular career implications for women, because women more than en tend to interrupt careers for child rearing. To respond to these concerns employers are facing growing pressures to provide”family-friendly’ policies and benefits. Organizational restructuring One of the challenges that HER management faces with organizational restructuring is dealing with the human consequences of change. The human cost associated with downsizing has been much discussed in the popular press: a survivor’s mentality for those who remain, unfulfilled cost savings estimates, loss of loyalty, and many people looking for new Jobs. Whereas many large firms have cut Jobs by reducing their resource, many smaller firms have continued to create Jobs.
This is particularly true in high technology industries, such as software development. These entrepreneurial firms are faced with growth, while trying to attract sufficient workers with flexible capabilities and to conserve financial resources Human Resource Management Activities Key to enhancing organizational performance is ensuring that human resources activities support organizational efforts focusing on productivity, service, and quality. To accomplish these goals, HER management is composed of several groups of interlinked activities.
Additionally, all managers with HER responsibilities must consider external environmental forces?such as legal, political, economic, social, cultural, and technological ones?when addressing these activities. The HER activities for which a brief overview follows are: * HER Planning and Analysis * Equal Employment Opportunity * Staffing * HER Development * Compensation and Benefits * Health, Safety, and Security * Employee and Labor/Management Relations The Three Different Roles of HER Management * Administrative Role It focuses on administrative processing and record keeping, with the short term (less than 1 year) timing.
The typical activities are administering employee benefits, conducting new employees relations, Interpreting HER polices Ana procedures, preparing equal employment reports. * Operational Role It focuses on operational support, with the intermediate term (1-2 years). The typical activities are managing compensation programs, recruiting and selecting for current openings, conducting safety training, resolving employee complaints. Strategic Role It focuses on organizational-wide global, with the longer term (2-5 years). The typical activities are assessing workforce trends and issues, engaging in community Rockford development planning, assisting in organizational restructuring and downsizing, advising on mergers or acquisitions, planning compensation strategies.
The Three Dimensions Associated with HER Management as a Strategic Business Contributor * Enhancing Organizational Performance * Involvement in strategic planning * Decision making on mergers, acquisitions, and downsizing * Redesigning organizations and work processes * Ensuring financial accountability for HER results * Expanding Human Capital * Attracting and retaining human resources * Developing human resource capabilities Identifying and rewarding performance * Delivering Cost-Effective Compliance Systems * Ensuring legal compliance * Demonstrating administrative efficiency Managing HER Activities Cooperation among people who specialize in HER and other managers is critical to organizational success, especially when global operations are involved. This cooperation requires contact, or interface, between the HER unit and managers within the organization. These points of contact represent the”boundaries” that determine who does what in the various HER activities. Organizing the HER Unit A wide variety of Jobs can be performed in HER departments.
As a firm grows large enough to need someone to focus primarily on HER activities, the role of the HER generalist emerges?that is, a person who has responsibility for performing a variety of HER activities. Further growth leads to adding HER specialists who have in-depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area. Intensive knowledge of an activity such as benefits, testing, training, or affirmative action compliance typifies the work of HER specialists. * Decentralized HER Activities How HER activities are coordinated and structured varies considerably from organization to organization. Centralization and decentralization are the end points on a continuum. Organizations are seldom totally centralized or decentralized.
With centralization, HER decision-making authority/ responsibility is concentrated upward in the organization; whereas with decentralization HER decision-making authority/ responsibility t D EAI onward tonguing ten organization. Is Los RL UT HER Activities outsourcing Outsourcing some HER activities can be beneficial for organizations for several reasons. First, the contractor is likely to maintain more current systems and recesses, so that the employer does not have to keep buying new items, such as computer software, programs, and hardware. Also, many contractors have special expertise that is unavailable to HER managers in smaller organizations. But outsourcing HER activities has some disadvantages also. First, the success of outsourcing rests in the competence of the outside vendor.
Having a contract that identifies what will be done and what continuing support will be provided is crucial. Selecting an outsider who fails to provide good services or results reflects negatively on the HER staff in the organization. Second, some concerns exist about “losing control” by utilizing outsourcing. Ethics and HER Management As the issues faced by HER managers have increased in number and complexity, so have the pressures and challenges of acting ethically. Ethical issues pose fundamental questions about fairness, Justice, truthfulness, and social responsibility. Concerns have been raised about the ethical standards used by managers and employees, particularly those in business organizations.
The most common unethical incidents by employees were lying to supervisors, employee drug or alcohol abuse, and falsification of records. Almost half of the HER professionals also indicated that their organization had pressured them to compromise their own ethical standards in order to meet financial, scheduling, or other operational goals. Consequently, all managers, including HER managers, must deal with ethical issues and be sensitive to how they interplay with HER activities. One way to address ethical issues in organizations is to conduct training of executives, managers, and employees. Training of managers and employees in ethics compliance has been found to reduce the incidence of ethical problems.
HER Management Competencies and Careers As HER management has become more and more complex, greater demands are placed on individuals who make the HER field their career specialty. Changes in the HER field are leading to changes in the competencies and capabilities of individuals concentrating on HER management. The development of broader competencies by HER professionals will ensure that HER management plays a strategic role in organizational success. Based on studies and surveys, it appears that three sets of capabilities are important for HER professionals: * Knowledge of business and organization * Influence and change management * Specific HER knowledge and expertise