Challenging Behaviour in Health & Social Care

P1: Describe the characteristics and causes of challenging behaviour

Challenging behaviour is behaviour outside of the expected norms for a person’s age that is disruptive and difficult to manage and can cause harm the individual exhibiting the behaviour is likely to suffer from learning disability or a mental illness or may have had a difficult upbringing.

Verbal Abuse: Is a form abuse that involves the use of words in a verbally abusive situation words are used to attack, control and inflict harm on another individual verbal abuse is not just mean it involves inflicting psychological violence on another individual attacking their being and attempting to destroy his or her spirit. A number of behaviours are considered verbally abusive behaviours such as angry outbursts, screaming rages and name calling verbal abuse often includes blaming and intimidation verbal abuse can be overt or covert but it is always about controlling often verbal abusers tell their victims what to think and how to feel they refuse to see or understand the victims point of view.

The effects of verbal abuse can affect an individual self image and affect someone in emotional psychological ways it can lead to low self esteem as well as depression victim may already be experiencing at home or in other places in some cases verbal abuse can reach a point where the victim is so depressed and wants escape so badly that the individual may turn to substance abuse or in some extreme cases suicide. There are many causes for verbal abuse some people have grown up in the environment of verbally abusive parent/carers an individual who feels they are insufficient in the eyes of society and have not succeeded an individual that has had luck and feels their peers judge them.

Physical Abuse: Is any intentional and unwanted contact with an individual or something close to their body sometimes abusive behaviour does not cause pain or even leave a bruise but it’s still unhealthy. Physical abuse can be classed as hitting, shaking, chocking, biting or physical attack it can lead to bruising, cuts, scratches burns, fractures and internal injuries as well as these more immediate injuries there can also be longer term ones. Physical abuse can in severe cases end up in disability, medical problems and long term issues will arise the age also influences how much damage is done to the individual the younger the child the more damage can be done.

Physical abuse leaves mental scars for the individual who have suffered abuse often may have had problems at school with concentration, self control, anger and social interaction individuals often need long term counselling in order to come to terms with their experiences and to be able to function normally in society also individuals who suffered physical abuse are prone to emotional distress they tend to suffer more from depression, self image issues, self consciousness and low self esteem it can also result in aggression towards others hostilely, fear and trust issues. The social problems as a result of physical abuse are they are severe many social issues start from the mental problems caused by the abuse.

They tend to manifest themselves as the inability to form friendships, poor social skills, and poor cognitive and language skills, disgust of others and either a problem with authority or the exact opposite. These problems can not only affect the individual but their family, friends and the people around them if they are not addressed the social problems related to abuse continue into adulthood. Sometimes they remain constant and controllable and others they increase in power and can interfere in the normal life of the victim adults who suffered abuse or ill treatment in childhood are likely to abuse their children in the future. The factors thought to influence the actions of an abuser lot of them have suffered; physical, emotional or sexual abuse themselves especially as children.

Self-destructive Behaviour: Are any behaviour that negatively impact an individual mind or body by life choices they make most individuals are unaware of their self destructive habits usually there is some problem with handling or expressing feeling self harm is a pattern of intentional self injury not death. Serious injuries occur including death accidentally types of self destructive behaviours avoiding responsibility, being overly sensitive, compulsive r addictive behaviours, excessive need for approval, setting their self up for failure, self pity, not taking care of their health and not allowing others to help.

The types of harm could include:

* Burning

* Cutting

* Excessive Piercing

* Excessive Tattooing

* Hair Pulling

* Picking Skin

* Punching Self or objects

* Scratching

Self destructive behaviour may be used as a coping mechanism when things get “too much” e.g.: when faced with their work rather than cope with the stress self destructive behaviour may also start itself in an attempt to drive away other people. The important aspect of self-destructive behaviour is the inability to handle the stress stemming from an individual’s lack of self-confidence. Causes of self destructive behaviours is often a form of self punishment in response to a personal failure it is common misconception that self destructive behaviours is inherently attention seeking while this may be true in some cases the individual may not have the motivation.

P3: Suggest strategies to minimise effects of challenging behaviour in health and social care setting

In health and social care settings challenging behaviour can arise daily or rarely but challenging behaviour takes many forms and is a certainly that health professionals working in the health and social care setting will experience challenging behaviour is present or arises there are many strategies that health professionals can use when dealing with challenging behaviour to minimise it.

Ways in which staff working in the health and social care setting does this is by using coping strategies a coping strategy is defined as behaviour that helps people to function better in a given situation challenging behaviour is a difficult term to define and is often misunderstood everyone has the ability to be challenging towards others at certain times and within certain situations however what might distinguish someone who is described as “having challenging behaviours “from frequency and intensity of behaviours that may be a significant risk of harm to themselves or others or certain types of behaviour that may limit or work against that person’s quality of life.

Health and social care human potential that they have to work hard to include everyone with a range of support to enable people to live their lives to the full and they should do their best for these individuals irrespective of the complexity of need or intensity of behaviour that challenges them.

The strategy is positive behaviour management positive behaviour support is a modern approach to challenging behaviours it is a strategies to respond to individuals with disabilities and without when their behaviour prevent them accessing the community or could become a danger to themselves or others. Positive behaviour strategies are considered effective when interventions result increases in a person’s success and personal satisfaction positive behaviour management is a strategy of positive behaviour support and aides with the capacity for understanding, preventing and responding to aggressive acts.

Positive behaviour management is a way of working with people who present challenging behaviour it proactive, ethically sound and values it offers a solution framework of support that rejects the use of punishment individuals with challenging behaviour often have long standing and difficult to understand behaviours positive behaviour management is a long term realistic developmental influences on behaviour the importance of quality information to support approaches it finds the need to understand triggers for prevention.

ABC method (antecedents, behaviours and consequences) associated with the behaviours

Antecedents are the time, people, places or events in the environment that are present prior to the target behaviour antecedents can include “slow triggers” technically known as setting events that increases the probability of the behaviour out coming and “fast triggers” events that seem to immediately start the behaviour in a predictable pattern. Antecedents can be categorized into fast triggers or slow triggers:

* Fast Triggers are events with a discrete onset and provoke or prompt a specific behaviour in an immediate way e.g.: loud noise, a specific task, a specific direction, taking something away

* Behaviours include the duration of the behaviour they are specific e.g.: screaming can vary in intensity and duration and may or may not be a behaviour to target if the intensity is mild

* Consequences are events that occur directly after the behaviour it is important to consider 2 different types of consequences:

* Planned consequences imposed after negative behaviour

* Unplanned consequences e.g.: actual events that take place after a behaviour is displayed e.g.: a teacher may decide to withdraw attention from a student who is swearing while peers may laugh at the student often it is the unplanned consequences that have the most significant impact on the behaviour.

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