Cellular Respiration: Breaking Down Energy (Biology)

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What is the purpose of cellular respiration?To create cell energy (ATP)
What happens to carbohydrates during cellular respiration?They are broken down and they release the energy. Its also used to combine ADP with another phosphate group to form ATP.
What is chemical energy in cell called?ATP

What does ATP stand for?Adenosine triphosphate
What is one product of cellular respiration?Carbon dioxide.
How do animals get rid of carbon dioxide?Exhale
What body system is involved with removing carbon dioxide?Lungs.
Is oxygen a product or a reactant of respiration?Its a reactant.
What is the formula for photosynthesis?6H2O + 6CO2 + energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Where is photosynthesis located in the cell?Chloroplast.
What is the formula for cellular respiration?C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H20 + 6CO2 + energy.
Where is cellular respiration located?Cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Genetic alteration probably refers to altering what?DNA
A calorie is what?Its a unit of energy.
The calorie used on food labels is equal to what?Kilocalories.
A calorie is referred to as what?A kilocalorie.
Cells used the energy stored in chemical bonds of foods to produce compounds that directly power the cells activities, such as what?ATP
If cellular respiration took place in just one step, most of the ____ would be lost in the form of light and _____energy and heat
Where does cellular respiration begin?Glycolysis.
Where does glycolysis take place in the cell?Cytoplasm.
At the end of glycolysis, about ___ percent of the chemical energy is locked in the bonds of the _____ molecule.90 and pyruvic acid.
Cellular respiration continues in the _____ of the cell with the ________ and electron transport chain.Mitochondria and Krebs Cycle.
Do the energy flow in photosynthesis and cellular respiration occurs in the opposite direction?Yes (true)
Do photosynthesis deposits energy in Earths “savings account” for living organisms?Yes (true)
Cellular respiration removes carbon dioxide from the air. True or false?False- Oxygen.
Does photosynthesis take place in nearly all life?No, cellular respiration does.
What is the function of photosynthesis?To capture energy.
Where is the location of reactions in photosynthesis?Cholorplasts
What is the reactants to photosynthesis?Water and carbon dioxide.
What are the products of photosynthesis?Glucose and oxygen.
What is the function of cellular respiration?When organisms get energy from food when oxygen is present.
What is the products of cellular respiration?Carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Why is it an investment for the cell to use two ATP at the beginning of glycolysis?You need energy to continue/start the cycle over and over. You get back more than you gain.
What are 2 advantages of glycolysis?It doesnt require oxygen and its fast.
True or false
The pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis enters the ___chloroplasts__ if oxygen is present in a cell
False. Its mitochondria.
True or false.
In the matrix, pyruvic acid is converted to __lactic__ acid before the Krebs Cycle begins?
False. Acetic.
Does the compound that joins with a 4-carbon molecule in the Krebs Cycle is called __acetyl-CoA__?Yes. (True)
Is __carbon dioxide__ the only product of the Krebs cycle that is not reused or used in other stages of CR?Yes. (True)
In eukaryotes, the ETC is composed of a series of electron carries located in the ___ of the mitochondrion.Inner.
In prokaryotes, the ETC is in the ____Cell membrane.
____ serves as the final electron acceptor of the ETC.Oxygen.
____ and ____ pass high-energy electrons to the ETCNADH and FADH2
The transfer of high-energy electrons down the ETC causes ____ to be transported across the mitochondrial membrane.H+ ions
ATP synthases produce the force needed to add one _______ to each ADP molecule by spinning when hydrogen ions flow through them.Phosphate group.
How many ATP molecules per glucose molecule does a cell gain from each of the 3 stages of CR?2- Glycolysis.
2- Krebs Cycle.
32- Electron Transport Chain.
Besides glucose, what other kinds of molecules can be used to produce ATP in CR?Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins.
Why is CR considered an efficient process?It doesnt require a lot of energy to create energy.
Where does the heat that warms your body come from?The energy in glucose.
Does glycolysis provide the pyruvic acid molecules used in fermentation?Yes. (True)
Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue by procviding the NADPH needed to accept high-energy electrons.
True or False?
False. NAD+
Fermentation is an aerobic process.
True or False?
Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.Yes. (True)
Alcoholic fermentation gives off carbon dioxide and is used in making bread.Yes. (True)
Most organisms perform fermentation using a chemical reaction that converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid.Yes. (True)
What are 3 main sources of ATP available for human muscle cells?ATP already in the muscles.
ATP made by lactic acid fermentation.
ATP produced by CR. (Cellular Respiration)
How do your muscle cells produce ATP after the store of ATP in muscles is used?Muscles produce ATP by lactic acid fermentation.
How does the body generate the necessary ATP?Cellular Respiration (CR)
AnaerobicWithout oxygen
GlycolysisProcess in which glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.
Krebs CycleStage of cellular respiration that starts with pyruvic acid and produces carbon dioxide.
CalorieAmount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C.
MatrixInnermost compartment of mitochondrion.
AerobicHas oxygen.
FermentationProcess that forms either lactic acid or ethyl alcohol when no oxygen is present.
What is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen?Cellular respiration.
What is the electron carrier that accepts electrons during glycolysis?NAD+
When comparing CR and photosynthesis, these 2 processes are best described as what?Opposite processes.
A cell that requires a lot of energy might contain large numbers of what?Mitochondria.
Heterotrophs are organisms that____Must consume other organisms to get energy.
ATP synthesis is linked to the development of a proton gradient. In order for energy synthesis to take place during cellular respiration, where in the cell do these protons accumulate?In the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
In animal cells, which structure uses a specialized membrane to convert oxygen and nutrients into energy the cell can use?Mitochondria.
Chemical energy stored in food molecules is released through___?Cellular respiration.
Describe the transfer of energy between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.Oxygen and glucose are produced during photosynthesis and are used during cellular respiration to perform vital cellular functions.
Many autotrophs obtain the energy they need for metabolism through___?Photosynthesis.
What is one difference between plants and animals?Plants are autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs.
Glycolysis occurs during the 2nd stage of cellular respiration.
True or False?
True or False.
Most of a cells ATP is produced in the cells mitochondria.
The mitochondria converts energy when___Glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water.
In living things, energy is stored in the chemical bonds of ___ when glucose is converted into carbon dioxide.ATP
What is a respiration rate when activity level is increased?Respiration rate increases as activity level increases.
Reactions that take place in the mitochondria make which product?Carbon dioxide.
The total amount of ATP that a cell gains for each glucose molecule depends on the presence of what?Oxygen.
Cellular respiration produces more ATP molecules than fermentation does.
True or False.
Is oxygen present during aerobic respiration?No. False.
What process happens in the mitochondria?It takes in nutrients, breaks them down and creates energy for the cell.
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