Cell Cycle and Cell Division

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Mitosis
when a cell is duplicated to create two new cells. prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (includes cytokinesis)

Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Cell Division
The reproduction of cells


Chromosomes
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins

Chromatin
thin, tangled strands of DNA present during interphase

Sister Chromatids
homologous (identical) chromosomes

Centromere
region where the sister chromatids attach to each other

How many chromatids are in a duplicated chromosome?
2

mitotic (M) phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase.

binary fission
A method of asexual reproduction by “division in half.”
asexual reproductionA type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
sexual reproductionA type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
G1 PhaseThe first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
S PhaseThe synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G2 PhaseThe second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
CentrioleA structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
Cleavage FurrowThe first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove around the cell in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
Binary FissionA method of asexual reproduction by “division in half.” In prokaryotes, binary fission does not involve mitosis, but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo binary fission, mitosis is part of the process.

Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
What are the 4 phases of mitosis?Prophase
(prometaphase)
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Chromosomes
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins

How many chromatids are in ONE duplicated chromosome?
2

interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. Interphase often accounts for about 90% of the cell cycle.

spindle fibers
Microtubules involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
Through a microscope, you can see a cell with two nuclei.. This cell is most likely in what state

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophasea plant cell in the process of cytokinesis.

Which of the following does NOT occur during mitosis?

condensation of the chromosomes
spindle formation
separation of the spindle poles
separation of sister chromatids
replication of the DNAreplication of the DNA happens during interphase (not parto

What are 2 parts of cell division?Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Cell division consists of two processes: mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis— division of the nucleus and its chromosomes

What happens during prophase?1. The nucleoli disappear
2. Chromatin fibers coil up to become discrete chromosomes.
3. Each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids, joined at the centromere.
4. Microtubules grow out from the centrosomes, initiating formation of the mitotic spindle.
What happens during metaphase?1. The mitotic spindle completed.
2. The microtubules attached to kinetochores move the chromosomes to the middle of the cell.
What happens during anaphase?1. The two centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids.
2. The spindle fibers pull apart the chromatids to form two nucleus of the cells.
What happens during Telophase?1. nuclear envelopes form around the identical sets of chromosomes at the two poles of the cell.
2. The chromosomes uncoil
3. Nucleoli appear in the two new nuclei.
G1 PhaseThe first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
S PhaseThe synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G2 PhaseThe second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
CentrosomeA structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.

“Cytokinesis” refers to _____.
division of the cytoplasm

-The final stage of the cell cycle
-is the division of the cytoplasm that follows the mitotic division of the nucleus.
-END RESULT: Two genetically identical cells.

In telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in _____.Prophase

During prophase, we observe the formation of the spindle, the condensation of chromatin, and the disappearance of the nucleolus.


The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called _____.
chromatin
A cell entering the cell cycle with 32 chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each with _____.

64 chromosomes

32 pairs of chromosomes

64 pairs of chromosomes

none of the above
None of the listed responses is correct.None of the above

Chromatids are _____.

A. found only in aberrant chromosomes

B.composed of RNA

C. identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome

D. held together by the centrioles

E. the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic chromosomesidentical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome

If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle?

120

45

60

30

1530


During interphase, the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is _____.
dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin

DNA replication occurs in _____.
the S phase of interphase in both somatic and reproductive cells
reasons for cell division?repair, easier acces to nutrients, and growth of an organism
Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from CollectifbdpHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out