Campbell Biology: Ninth Edition – Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules


macromolecule
There are Four major types of biological macromolecules that make up the human body: nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats

dehydration reaction
a chemical reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule

hydrolysis
a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between 2 molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers


carbohydrates
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)

monosaccharide
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, that are generally some multiple of CH2O

polysaccharide
Polymers of simple sugars covalently linked by glycosidic bonds

fat
a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or a triglyceride.

fatty acid
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacyglycerol or a triglyceride

phospholipid
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head.; form bilayers that function as biological membranes

protein
a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific 3D structure

amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group; serve as monomers of polypeptides

peptide bond
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by dehydration reaction

primary structure
the level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids

nucleic acid
a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. the 2 types of nucleic acid are DNA and RNA

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cells proteins

ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses

Saturated fat
All carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds

Unsaturated fat
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.

Ester bond

What determines Tertiary Structure?
Interactions between R Groups rather than interactions between backbone constituents

Carboxyl Group

dissaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

Which monosaccharide is a major nutrient, central to cellular metobolism. It is broken down for energy in the process of cellular respiration. The carbon skeleton of this sugar can also be used to build many other organic molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids.
Glucose
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