Autocratic: classical approach where the manager retains as much power and decision making authority Does not consult employees and they are not allowed input Advantages: effective supervision, useful when employees do not listen to other leadership styles Disadvantages: threats and punishment to influence employees, low morale, employees become tense, fearful and resentful Laissez-fairer: “hands off’ manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom; employees must determine their own goals, make decisions and resolve problems on their own Advantages: when highly skilled experienced workers eave freedom to make their own decisions Disadvantages: employees have all the power and freedom although they must solve problems on their own, no feedback Democratic: participative, they encourage employees to be a part of decision making, keeps people informed, they have the final say but gathers information before making a decision Advantages: high quality, and high quantity of work trust, cooperation, team spirit, high morale; good for building participation Disadvantages: cost efficient if the manager decision makes therefore employees will have no say Frederick w. Taylor: Found employees “soldiering” (working slowly) so he started “piece work pay system” which paid employees based on their productivity 4 steps to improve management: 1. Break down the Job into small portions 2. Hire the most qualified people 3. Train/use supervisors to monitor 4. Keep only the employees who show progress and provide monetary incentives Frank and Lillian Gilberts: Industrial engineers conducted motion studies in brick laying techniques Found that efficient ways to reduce the physical movements Reduced from 18 steps to 5 steps Increased productivity by 200% and profit levels (reduction in time) Henry Payola:
Created the 4 functions of management (planning, organizing, leading and controlling) His thinking was expressed in 14 principles for effective management Max Weber: (bureaucratic management) Standards rules/guidelines for all Clearly defined Job descriptions, responsibilities, duties, and fixed salaries Hierarchy of authority used mainly in government Jobs advantages: it is efficient and fair disadvantages: strict rules, “red tape” Mary Parker Fillet: Studied the importance of human elements in the workplace; employees need to be given responsibility and ownership in the company Started profit sharing ideas Elton Mayo: Conducted the Hawthorne Studies in Chicago western electric plant in 12924-27 Studied productivity vs.. Working conditions Study 1: control of light/heat only in one room of the factory When illumination was increased, productivity increased for the entire company Why?
Employees were given attention productivity was declined when lighting was reduced and experiment was completed Study 2: 6 women moved off assembly line for 1 week and given extra lunch time, breaks and attention Result: increase in productivity, self-esteem, loyalty, co-operation Women enjoyed socializing and formed friendships: productivity creased when things were back to regular routine Conclusion: great need for recognition, breaks, teamwork, social things, employees need to be “stroked” made feel good; sense of belonging the” somebody upstairs cares” syndrome Douglas McGregor 2 extreme beliefs that different managers have about workers Theory X: 1. People hate work and avoid it 2. People need to be controlled and threatened to get the Job done 3. People have little ambition like to be directed and avoid responsibilities 4. Conclusion: managers must be: tough, use tight control/punishment give orders strict, employees become sieve and dependent Theory Y: 1. People feel work is a natural activity 2. People are committed to the company and are motivated to work 3. People like to receive rewards for reaching goals 4.
People will seek and accept responsibility 5. People are creative and intelligent problem solver 6. Conclusion: allow participation, and freedom. Responsibilities and rewards treat with value/respect result: motivate them, to achieve greater productivity Ramona Mallow: Discovered the 5 human needs, and created the hierarchy of needs 1. Personal life, salary 2. Company policy, Job security, working conditions . Interpersonal relations, supervision 4. Advancement, recognition, status 5. Possibility of growth work itself, achievement Needs Theory work on 2 principles: 1. Deficit- a satisfied need is NOT a motivator, people only act to satisfy a deprived need 2.
Progression- 5 needs exist in a hierarchy; a need at any level is satisfied only when the lower level need has been accomplished Model Z: An attempt to integrate common nosiness practices from the United States and Japan into one middle ground framework Ethics- personal beliefs regarding right and wrong- good or bad behavior Ethical behavior- behavior that conforms to generally accepted social norms: what is good Unethical behavior- the behavior that does not conform to generally accepted social norms; what is bad Foundation of individual ethics: 1. Family influences 2. Peer influences 3. Life experiences 4. Personal values or/and morals 5. Situational factors The ethical behavior of a Manager: Manager as a Person Family influences Religious values Personal standards and needs Employing Organization Policies, code of conduct Behavior of supervisors and peers Organizational culture External Environment
Government regulations Norms and values of society Ethical climate of industry Company Approaches to Social Responsibility Social Obstruction: Companies do as little as possible, may be unethical at times Problems are denied, or covered up Social Obligation: companies won ah want Is legally required Ana nothing else Social Response: Companies who do what is legally required and do a little “something” more of an area in interest Social Contribution: Companies who do far more than what is legally required Select many social issues and injustices and act to help solve them by providing time ND money Ways to be Socially Responsible: 1. Legal compliance Companies do what us legally required from the local, provincial, federal and international laws 2. Ethical compliance The extent to which the firm and the employees follow basic ethical standards of behavior 3. Philanthropic giving The private donations of money or gifts to charities or other social programs by companies or private executives 4. Whistle blowing Employees disclose illegal or unethical behavior in a company to the public The whistler’s puts his/her Job at risk of being fired as a result of this exposure