Biol 2117 chp 8
AmesThe ______ test measures the reversion of histidine auxotrophs of Salmonella. in order to determine if something is a carcinogen.
anticodonThe transfer RNA has a three base sequence called an _______ that matches up with the three base sequences of mRNA.
auxotropha mutant microbe that has a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent
carcinogensomething that causes cancer
catabolic repressionWhen the presence of glucose prevents other carbon sources from being utilized it is called _______ _______.
chromosomecellular structures that physically contain hereditary information; a single molecule of DNA
codonsThe bases of the mRNA specify amino acids in groups of three nucleotides called ______. Each three base sequence will specify one amino acid or provide a stop signal.
complementaryDNA strands are held together by _______ base pairing in which specific bases are joined together with hydrogen bonds.
conjugationmethod of DNA transfer requiring direct cell-to-cell contact between a donor cell and a recipient cell
DNA ligaseenzyme which joins the discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand during replication
DNA polymerasesynthesizes the new DNA during replication
frameshiftA deletion or insertion of nucleotides can cause a _______ mutation where the evaluation of the resulting mRNA is thrown off for everything downstream of the mutation
genesegment of DNA which codes for a single polypeptide
genetic recombinationthe exchange of genes between two DNA molecules to form new combinations of genes on a chromosome
genotypethe genetic makeup of the organism as contained in the DNA
inductionthe process that turns on the transcription of a gene when its product is needed
messenger RNAcarries the genetic code information to the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place
mutagensagents in the environment that cause mutations by chemically or physically reacting with the DNA
mutationchange in the base sequence of DNA
nucleotidesrepeating units which comprise DNA; made of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base
operatorthe place where the repressor protein binds; results in RNA polymerase not being able to transcribe the genes that follow
phenotypethe actual, expressed properties (traits) of the organism
plasmidsself-replicating, gene-containing circular pieces of DNA about 1-5% the size of the bacterial chromosome
pointA single base substitution is a _______ mutation.
promoterRNA polymerase binds to a DNA site called the_______ which is found at the beginning of a gene.
replicationthe process whereby the DNA is copied to make two daughter DNA molecules from one parental DNA molecule prior to mitosis
repressionthe process which inhibits gene expression and decreases the synthesis of the enzymes coded for by the genes when the products of those genes are not necessary for survival
repressorThe regulatory I gene codes for the ______ protein.
semiconservativeWhen copying DNA prior to mitosis, the fact that each resulting daughter molecule has one original strand and one newly synthesized strand of DNA is referred to as __________ replication.
transcriptionthe copying of DNA into messenger RNA
transductionmechanism of genetic transfer in which bacterial DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus that infects bacteria (a bacteriophage)
transfer RNAbrings amino acids into position during the process of translation
transformationgenes are transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution
translationthe process of making a polypeptide chain from the information in the mRNA
transposonssmall segments of DNA that can move from one region of a DNA molecule to another; may carry genes themselves and may also insert within genes already there, thus inactivating them