Behaviour in organizations

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Data for the 16 ‘ideal work value’ (see Table 2) item responses were factor analysed. Employing the varimax rotation option two factors were established. These two factors were determined as an expressive dimension, which includes having work setting features that are interesting and challenging, autonomy in decision-making, and the opportunity to achieve ideals while associating with colleagues. This set of items were termed the ‘self expression’ variable. A second factor that contained elements of pay, good company policies and job security was termed ‘economic dimension’.

Nevertheless, this second factor only contributed a further 6. 8 percent to the variance explained, the eigen value was only slightly above one (1), and moreover the two factors were strongly correlated (0. 57) at the p < 0. 001 level. Hence it was decided to treat the data for ideal work values as unidimensional. Correlation analysis is reported in Table 3. The demographic relationships are somewhat expected. Specifically, employees with higher levels of formal education, longer seniority and higher income levels tended to perceive their current jobs more favourably in terms of material gratification.

Also, more senior employees tended to perceive their current jobs more favourably as interpersonal satisfaction. Nevertheless, the demographic variables were non-significantly associated with ideal work values. However, there were substantial linkages between actual work values and the organisational variables of job satisfaction and turnover intention. These data infer employees whose work values are being realised are more satisfied and are hence, unlikely to change jobs. The content of Table 3 also indicates that older employees with better job prospects were more satisfied with their jobs and are also unlikely to seek alternative work.

Summary The findings of this study indicate that Taiwanese employees’ work values are characterised by multiple facets, with ‘use my personal abilities’ the most important dimension. Evidence also suggests that simultaneous with the economic rise of Taiwan twenty years ago, employee attitudes towards work have also changed from meeting survival needs to self-actualisation needs. Jobs are no longer seen as just a means of survival, instead they are increasingly seen as means of self-expression, and passages to accomplish life goals and ideals. What more then can management do to enhance the workers’ job adjustment?

On the one hand, job enrichment, job enlargement, job redesign, and performance management systems may be introduced that allow for challenge and self-actualisation at work. Counseling and guidance services may be provided to help employees to better understand their own needs and wants, and hence find better ways to realise these ideals in jobs. On the other hand, more varied and personalised company welfare packages may be discussed and introduced to accommodate diverse employee wishes, such as flexible work time, holiday arrangements, and childcare allowances.

Money is no longer the only valued reward from work, although still an important one, especially in the current Taiwanese economic depression. Better and more effective performance management systems have the potential to enhance both employees’ actual monetary returns and a psychological sense of equality and consequently to provide actual benefits in organisational performance.

References

Baron, R. A. (1986). ‘Behaviour in organizations’, Allyn & Bacon, Boston. Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. A. (1997).Behaviour in organizations: Understanding and managing the Human side of work, 6th ed, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). ‘Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of texts’, Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. Greenhause, J. H. , Hawkons, B. L. & Brenner, 0. C. (1983). ‘The impact of career exploration on the career decision-making process’, Journal of College Personnel, 24, 495-502. Guo, T. H. (1982). ‘A study of work values among middle school students: Gender, school years, familial SES, academic achievement, and regional comparisons’, Journal of Counselling, 5, 163-184.

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