Assumptions and Fallacies
According to our text The Art of Thinking Ch. 10 assumptions is to take something for granted, to expect things will be a certain way because they have been that way in the past or because you want them to be that way. Assuming can interfere with our critical thinking because we assume things might or should be one way, and we perceive it as such. For example; in my personal experience because I might do something a certain way or believe something is a certain way that everyone does or believes the same as me.
For me to avoid assumptions in my thinking, to I would have to look at the topic as a whole and evaluate it, and look at other ideas as well. I have to remember everyone is an individual and does things differently then I. I would have to try to refine my thinking to improve my ideas, to make my creative thinking more effective. In our text it says when we refine our thinking we are to find flaws and complications, the emphasis is not negative but positive, and that our aim is to improve our thinking. Fallacy derives from two Latin words; fallax (deceptive) and fallere (deceive).
Fallacies are stratagems for gaining influence, advantage, and power (over the sheep of society). (The thinker guide to fallacies, by Dr. R. Paul and Dr. L. Elder). Fallacies are used in written and orally by national and international news, by governments, by politicians these types of media write speeches, news articles and then they tell it to the people who are listening. For example, whenever there is a presidential campaign the candidates running for office will write speeches, and then they will get up in front of a crowd and the nation and orally give their speech.
Visual fallacies will use things like the internet or television so you are able to see and visualize what the topic is portraying. For example, television commercials such as the ones you will find on the shopping network, they use visual to sell things, people see them on television think it’s a great deal and buy them, hoping there is truth the advertisement and it really does work. For me to avoid fallacies in my thinking would be to identify what is wrong with my thinking, why am I thinking this way. I need to be able to identify the fallacies, I think if I am able to do that then I might be able to become a better thinker.