APUSH: Treaty of Ghent – Election of 1860
Second bank of the U.S., a reversal of Jeffersonian ideasAs a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
Tariff of 1816 – ProtectiveThis protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Bonus Bill vetoMarch, 1817 – Madison vetoed John C. Calhouns Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the Constitution. (Great Gatsby Essay)
Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes1817 – This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
Convention of 1818Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
Panic of 1819A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
West Florida, 1810The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region.
Jackson in Florida1817 – The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jacksons successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
Purchase of Florida1819 – Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico.
Quadruple Alliance, Holy AllianceThe Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
George Canning (1770-1829)Led the House of Commons in Parliament. Cut Great Britain from the Holy Alliance in 1823. First leader to recognize the independence of the Spanish colonies in America and support the Monroe Doctrine, which helped restore good relations between the U.S. and Great Britain.
Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact1823 – Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Era of Good FeelingsA name for President Monroes two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Chief Justice John Marshall: decisionJustice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Courts power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas AmendmentWhen Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25. The Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30″ latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region. Neither bill was put into effect.
Missouri Compromise, provisionsAdmitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30″ latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
Growth of industry in New England, textilesThe industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.
Samuel Slater (1768-1835)When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
Robert Fulton, ClermontA famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built Americas first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for “engine”)1798 – He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
Interchangeable parts1799-1800 – Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
Boston Associates, Lowell, MassachusettsThe Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Daniel Webster (1782-1852)A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
National Road (also called Cumberland Road)The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Internal improvementsThe program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Erie Canal, Dewitt Clinton1825 – The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New Yorks Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
New states, 1815-1840The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and free states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free).
Federal governments land policy: 1796, 1800, 1804, 1820In 1796, land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more for no less than $2 per acre. In 1800, the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre.
New Englands opposition to cheap landNew England was opposed to the federal governments liberal land policy because they did not feel that their region was benefitting from the money made off the land sales.
John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe DoctrineHe served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams work.
Election of 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, ClayPopular vote: Jackson – 152,933 (42%), Adams – 115,626 (32%), Clay – 47,136 (13%), Crawford – 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson – 99, Adams – 84, Crawford – 41, Clay – 37. House vote: Adams – 13, Jackson – 7, Crawford – 4, Clay – dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
“Corrupt Bargain”The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Panama ConferenceSummoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between U.S. and South America.
Tariff of Abominations1828 – Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated states rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nullificationVice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jeffersons emphasis on farmers welfare gave way to Jacksons appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jacksons election was the revolution of the “Common Man”.
Age of the Common ManJacksons presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people – a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
Jacksonian Democracy: characteristicsThe Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more womens rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
Franchise extended, spoils systemFranchise extended – more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system – “To the victor go the spoils” – the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
National RepublicansAfter the 1824 election, part of the Democratic – Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jacksons radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830s.
Caucus System, Nation Nominating ConventionsIn the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process.
Kitchen CabinetA small group of Jacksons friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didnt like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the “Kitchen Cabinet” or “Lower Cabinet”.
Cherokee Indian removal, “Trail of Tears”A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 – 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the “Trail of Tears”.
Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. GeorgiaWorchester v. Georgia: 1832 – The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didnt support the Court.Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831 – The Supreme Court ruled that Indians werent independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
Whigs: origins, policiesWhigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clays American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Maysville Road Veto1830 – The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clays state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didnt like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic PartyAndrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won – 219 to Clays 49 and Wirts 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas BiddleThe Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasnt rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the banks president. He made the banks loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didnt destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Veto message1832 – Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
Jacksons removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-FocosAngry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldnt comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
Chestnut Street to WallName change of the street in New York in 1800s.
Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debateThe Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
Peggy Eaton AffairSocial scandal (1829-1831) – John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet – especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Calhoun resigns as vice-president1832 – Calhoun, from South Carolina, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jacksons that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and ProtestWhen faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
Jefferson Day Dinner: toasts and quotesApril 13, 1830 – At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, “Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!” making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states rights supporters claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhouns response to the toast was, “The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union.” Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states rights) in public, but he didnt succeed.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
Force Bill1833 – The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolinas ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Calhoun splits with Jackson1832 – Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority.
Martin Van Buren, the Albany RegencyMartin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jacksons V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
Specie Circular1863 – The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Charles River Bridge Decision, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, General Incooperation Laws1837 – The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modified C.J. Marshalls ruling in the Darmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
Panic of 1837When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Dorrs RebellionIn 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas Dorr led a group of rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr was sentenced to life imprisonment, but the sentence was withdrawn. Dorrs Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need for reform. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all men the right to vote.
Independent Treasury PlanIdea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
Election of 1840: candidates, characteristicsWilliam Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler – Whig – 234 votes. Martin Van Buren – Democrat – 60 votes. James G. Birney – Liberty Party – 0 votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler too”. They depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a “log cabin and hard cider” guy, which wasnt entirely true.
Rise of the Second Party SystemSince the 1840s, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840s.
Pre-emption Act, 1841This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it before surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid for the land. Some speculators used “floaters” to pre-empt land for them.
Tariff of 1842A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
TranscendentalismA philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830s and 1840s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
TranscendentalistsBelieved in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together with the philosophy as their guide. “They sympathize with each other in the hope that the future will not always be as the past.” It was more literary than practical – Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), “On Civil Disobedience”A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, “On Civil Disobedience,” he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Orestes Brownson (1803-1876)Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and founder of his own church in Boston. Spent his life searching for his place and supporting various causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and won a large intellectual New England following. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong defender of Catholicism in Brownsons Quarterly Review, from 1844 until his death.
Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The DialSocial reformer, leader in womens movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted “perfect freedom”, “progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the future will not always be as the past.”
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), The Spy, The PioneersAmerican novelist. The Spy (1821) was about the American Revolution. The Pioneers (1823) tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier, for which Cooper was famous. (Leatherstocking is the scout.) Cooper later stayed in Europe for seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didnt live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order.
James Fenimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans1826 – It is about a scout named Hawkeye during the French and Indian War, while he was in his prime. It is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, about a frontiersman and a noble Indian, and the clash between growing civilization and untamed wilderness.
Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby DickWrote Moby Dick (1851) about a Captain Ahab who seeks revenge on the white whale that crippled him but ends up losing his life, his ship, and his crew. Wasnt popular at the time but now highly regarded. Melville rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny. His views were not popular at the time, but were accepted by later generations.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet LetterOriginally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet “A”.
Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)Author who wrote many poems and short stories including “The Raven,” “The Bells,” “The Tell-Tale Heart,” and “The Gold Bug.” He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories.
Washington Irving (1783-1859)Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.” He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of GrassLeaves of Grass (1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like “I reckon”, “duds”, and “folks”. He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views – Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
Hudson River School of ArtIn about 1825, a group of American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes of New Yorks Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in AmericaDe Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majoritys unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Millennialism, MilleritesMillerites were Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end. The Millennial Dawnists, another sect of the Seventh-Day Adventists, believed the world was under Satans rule and felt it their obligation to announce the Second Coming of Christ and the battle of Armageddon.
“The Burned-Over District”Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800s, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800s. He helped establish the “Oberlin Theology”. His emphasis on “disinterested benevolence” helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smiths announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah1847 – Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
Brook FarmAn experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
New HarmonyA utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
Oneida CommunityA group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
ShakersA millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Amana CommunityA German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
Lyceum MovementDeveloped in the 1800s in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
Some reforms successful, some not, why?In the 1800s, it was usually because the general public either didnt vocally support the reform or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reforms failed if they were too far out on the political spectrum.
Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insaneA reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Rise of labor leadersDuring the 1800s, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
National Trade UnionUnions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
Commonwealth v. Hunt1842 – Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unionsFor a time in the 1700s and 1800s, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage of work by a group of employees in a strike could be judged a criminal restraint of trade. This approach largely ended after Commonwealth v. Hunt.
Oberlin, 1833; Mt. Holyoke, 1836Oberlin: founded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
Public education, Horace MannSecretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
American Temperance UnionThe flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800s. Opposed alcohol.
“Ten Nights in a Bar-Room,” Timothy Shay ArthurA melodramatic story, published in 1856, which became a favorite text for temperance lecturers. In it, a traveller visits the town of Cedarville occasionally for ten years, notes the changing fortunes of the citizens and blames the saloon.
Maine Law, Neal DowIn 1838, Dow founded the Maine Temperance Union. As mayor of Portland, Maine, Dow secured in 1851 the states passage the Maine Law, which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
Irish, German immigrationIrish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800s, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
NativismAn anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840s and 1850s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Samuel F.B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the U.S. Through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization LawsHe was briefly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that foreign immigration posed a threat to the free institutions of the U.S., as immigrants took jobs from Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
Women, their rights, areas of discriminationIn the 1800s women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and womens suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first womens rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady StantonA pioneer in the womens suffrage movement, she helped organize the first womens rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 – 1870.
Seneca FallsJuly, 1848 – Site of the first modern womens right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for womens suffrage.
Emma Willard (1787-1870)Early supporter of womens education, in 1818 she published Plan for Improving Female Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. In 1821, she opened her own girls school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed womens suffrage.
“Cult of True Womanhood”: piety, domesticity, purity and submissivenessWhile many women were in favor of the womens movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of “true womanhood”: piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the womens movement referred to their ideas as the “Cult of True Womanhood.”
Womens movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movementIn the 1800s, the womens movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the womens movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
American Peace SocietyFounded in 1828 by William Laddit. Formally condemned all wars, though it supported the U.S. government during the Civil War, WWI, and WWII. It was dissolved after the United Nations was formed in 1945.
Prison reform: Auburn system, Pennsylvania systemPrison reform in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison1803 – The case arose out of Jeffersons refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the Supreme Courts right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck1810 – A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a persons property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee1816 – This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts.
Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward1819 – This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland1819 – This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia1821 – This case upheld the Supreme Courts jurisdiction to review a state courts decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden1824 – This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia1831 – Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia1832 – Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Supreme Court: River Bridge v. Warren Bridge1837 – Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
Supreme Court: Commonwealth v. Hunt1842 – Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Great American DesertRegion between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the “Great American Desert” in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Manifest DestinyPhrase commonly used in the 1840s and 1850s. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
Horace Greeley (1811-1873)Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying “Go west, young man.” He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858)A zealous supporter of western interests, he staunchly advocated government support of frontier exploration during his term in the Senate from 1820 – 1850. A senator from Missouri, but he opposed slavery.
Stephen Austin (1793-1836)In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers army in the Texas Revolution.
Texas War for IndependenceAfter a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In respone, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
Santa AnaAs dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
AlamoA Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
San JacintoA surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Anas camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Anas men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans – 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans – 4 dead.
Sam Houston (1793-1863)Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 ; 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
Republic of TexasCreated March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President TylerU.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution – both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Election of 1844: CandidatesJames K. Polk – Democrat. Henry Clay – Whig. James G. Birney – Liberty Party.
Election of 1844: IssuesManifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
Election of 1844: Third partys impactThird partys impact was significant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away from Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
Election 1844: Liberty PartyThe first abolitionist party – believed in ending slavery.
Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of OregonTexas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
54?40 or Fight!An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polks slogan – the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54?40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49? latitude in 1846.
James K. PolkPresident known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
Slidell mission to MexicoAppointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territoryTexas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles noth of the Rio Gannde. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
General Zachary TaylorCommander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polks orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylors forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Mexican War: causes, resultsCauses: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840s and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
Spot ResolutionsCongressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Stephen KearnyCommander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico.
John C. FremontCivil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take California by himself before the war began and become a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.
General Winfield ScottLed the U.S. forces march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
Nicholas TristSent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago provisionsThis treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
All Mexico MovementBenito Juarez overthrew Mexican dictator Santa Ana. Mexico began blocking American immigration (Mexico for Mexicans only).
Mexican CessionSome of Mexicos territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada ; Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
Webster-Ashburton Treaty1842 – Established Maines northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Carolina and Creole AffairsA group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by a ship from Carolina. The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole Affair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
Aroostook WarMaine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn – Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land).
Oregon Fever1842 – Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Willamette ValleyThe spot where many settlers travelling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
Oregon TerritoryThe territory comprised what arenow the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
49th ParallelThe Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
Election of 1848: Cass, TaylorZachary Taylor – Whig. Lewis Cass – Democrat. Martin Van Buren – Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
Wilmot ProvisoWhen President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
Gadsen Purchase1853 – After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
HegemonyDomination or leadership – especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
“Transportation Revolution”By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities economies together.
Commonwealth v. Hunt1842 – Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Boston AssociatesThe Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Lowell FactoryFrancis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
Factory girlsLowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didnt have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaperMcCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
Elias Howe (1819-1869)Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Ten-Hour MovementLabor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked from sun up to sundown.
Clipper shipsLong, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western U.S.
Cyrus Field (1819-1892)An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
Robert Fulton, steamshipsA famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built Americas first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraphMorse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
Walker Tariff1846 – Sponsored by Polks Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariff. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.
Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and PolkMeant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
American Colonization SocietyFormed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
AbolitionismThe militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War.
SectionalismDifferent parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
The LiberatorA militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrisons strong arguments.
American Anti-slavery SocietyFormed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
Theodore Weld (1802-1895)Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract “American Slavery as It Is” (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Toms Cabin.
Theodore Parker (1810-1860)A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as “the keeper of the publics conscience”. His advocation for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
The Grimke sistersAngelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837)An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
Wendell PhillipsAn orator and associate of Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer.
Nat Turners Insurrection1831 – Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
David Walker (1785-1830), “Walkers Appeal”A Boston free black man who published papers against slavery.
Sojourner TruthName used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800)A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including Gabriel.
Denmark VeseyA mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, VirginiaAn iron mill in Richmond. It was run by skilled slave labor and was among the best iron foundry in the nation. It kept the Confederacy alive until 1863 as its only supplier of cannons. It was also the major munitions supplier of the South and was directly responsible for the capitol of the Confederacy being moved to Richmond.
Mountain Whites in the SouthRednecks. Usually poor, aspired to be successful enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much of the Confederate Army, fighting primarily for sectionalism and states rights.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania1842 – A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
“King Cotton”Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the Souths cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, “You darent make war against cotton! …Cotton is king!”.
Free Soil PartyFormed in 1847 – 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
John Sutter (1803-1880)A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
Forty-NinersEasterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
California applies for admission as a stateCalifornians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
Compromise of 1850: provisions, impactCalled for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Fugitive Slave LawEnacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Anthony Burns (1834-1862)A slave who fled from Virginia to Boston in 1854. Attempts to return him led to unrest in Boston. He was successfully returned at a cost $100,000. He was bought a few months later by a Boston group intent on setting him free.
Ablemann v. Booth1859 – Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slaves rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
Websters 7th of March SpeechDaniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
Nashville ConventionMeeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
Henry Clay (1777-1852)Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
John C. CalhounFormerly Jacksons vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the Souths demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states rights.
Underground RailroadA secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
Harriet Tubman (1821-1913)A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.
Uncle Toms Cabin, Harriet Beecher StoweShe wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Toms Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Election of 1852: end of the Whig partyBy this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
Perry and JapanCommodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
Ostend ManifestoThe recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Kansas – Nebraska Act1854 – This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
Birth of the Republican PartyA coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The partys Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
Stephen A. DouglasA moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Popular SovereigntyThe doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Thirty-six, thirty lineAccording to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36?30 N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing PartyDemocrat – James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican – John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig – Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying “I know nothing”.
“Bleeding Kansas”Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Browns 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.
Lawrence, Kansas1855 – Where the pro-slavery /anti-slavery war in Kansas began (“Bleeding Kansas or Kansas Border War).
“Beechers Bibles”During the Kansas border war, the New England Emigrant Aid Society sent rifles at the instigation of fervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These rifles became known as “Beechers Bibles”.
John Browns RaidIn 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Pottawatomie MassacreJohn Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
New England Emigrant Aid CompanyPromoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
Sumner-Brooks Affair1856 – Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
Lecompton ConstitutionThe pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas admission to the union. It was rejected.
Dred Scott DecisionA Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldnt sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced “Tawny”)As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaignA series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincolns position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
Freeport DoctrineDuring the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldnt force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Panic of 1857Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression affected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the South.
George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free SocietyThe most influential propagandist in the decade before the Civil War. In his Sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the North was a failure. In another writing he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. Tried to justify slavery.
Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the SouthHinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasnt written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
Lincolns “House Divided” speechIn his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” He continued, “I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved – I do not expect the house to fall – but I do believe it will cease to be divided.”
John Brown, Harpers Ferry RaidIn 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Election of 1860: candidates, parties, issuesRepublican – Abraham Lincoln. Democrat – Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union – John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, CharlestonThe Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
John BellHe was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
John Breckinridge (1821-1875)Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states rights.
Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
Buchanan and the Secession CrisisAfter Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
Crittenden Compromise proposalA desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36?30 line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
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