Affect ICT systems

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Objective: To understand the basic concepts of organisational structure as they appear on/affect ICT systems. What is an organisation? An organisation is a collection of human and non human resources that are brought together in order to fulfill a designated purpose. 1. Supermarket 2. School 3. Shop 4. Large commercial enterprise 5. Small informally structured non commercial group – green peace In some cases the structures are clearly defined and inflexible, in others the structure is less formally defined. Factors which determine the structures:

The size and the complexity of the organization the larger and more complex the organization the more likely it is to have clear lines of authority.  The geographical spread of the organization, those spread over a region often have a structure which reflect this with regionally based departments.  The value and the beliefs of the organization- some executives prefer more flexible structures believing they make more sense. > The nature of the organization- a multinational business may require a separate area for specialization. ( I. e. tesco’s goal is profit, green peace goal is informing, protecting etc)

Hierarchal Model: Used for large commercial organizations  Dominate the business world Maybe based on a division of personnel Key Words: Chain of Command- path through which instructions are given and decisions requested i. e. Instructions will move from the top down, when a decision has to be made the path will move up.  Span of Control: how many people a manager is responsible for. Wide span = inadequate control 2 narrow = unnecessary Disadvantages of Hierarchical Model:  Junior members of an organization may feel that they are not involved in any decision making.

The people in the upper levels of the management may become very remote from what is occurring in the lower levels. Unless communication is fully documented, it can become distorted as it goes through the layers. Flat structure:  Span of control is much wider Can be more flexible as implementations can be quicker Greater independence is given to the individual departments therefore there is more delegation and responsibility  If there are too many departments, there is a lack of communication, and loss of the sight of the goal.

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